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When tensile-strength tests are omitted: a. For pipe ends of the same nominal wall thickness, the alignment offset requirement is: a. For procedure qualification, the exposed surfaces of each nick-break specimen shall show: a. Lineup clamps shall be used for butt welds in accordance with the procedure specification. When it is permissible to remove the lineup clamp before the root bead is completed,: a.
During welder qualification, when destructively testing pipe with a diameter less than or equal to When pipe is welded above ground, the working clearance around the pipe at the weld should be at least: a. The exposed surfaces of each fillet-weld-break specimen shall show: a.
When automatic or semiautomatic welding is used, which of the following shall be removed by grinding before welding over them? Undercutting adjacent to the final bead on the outside of production pipe welds shall: a. Welding inspection personnel shall be qualified by: a. American Welding Society b. American Society for Nondestructive Testing c.
American Petroleum Institute d. American Society of Mechanical Engineers e. SAW b. SMAW c. GTAW d. GMAW e. Incomplete fusion due to cold lap IFD is defined as: a. Field beveling of pipe ends by manual oxygen cutting is acceptable if authorized by the company. IC is never acceptable d. A welding procedure test is being performed on 3 inch schedule 80 pipe 0. What is the total number of specimens required for testing?
Which of the following types of defects other than cracks may be repaired with prior company authorization? To test fillet-welded joints for qualification of a welding procedure,: a. Testing of weld repairs requires: a. Cracks in welds may be repaired provided the following criteria are met: a. When selecting butt-weld specimens for a welder qualification test, the specimen locations may be rotated, provided they are equally spaced around the pipe; however, specimens shall not include the longitudinal weld.
API applies to the welding of pipe and fittings that conform to: a. API Specification 5L b. API Specification c. AWS Specification 5. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document including any amendments applies.
When identical terms are defined in AWS A3. NOTE A back weld repair is not a back weld 3. NOTE A company may act through an inspector or another authorized representative. NOTE See 5. NOTE The magnitude of concavity is the perpendicular distance between an axial extension of the pipe wall surface and the lowest point on the weld bead surface.
In a multipass weld, it is also the minimum temperature immediately before the second and subsequent passes are started. NOTE A welder may check their work visually throughout the welding process and after welding has been completed, and perform rework as necessary. NOTE Rework is not a repair. The advance of the welding arc is manually controlled. External undercutting EU is adjacent to the cover pass and internal undercutting IU is adjacent to the root bead.
Arc welding equipment shall be operated within the amperage and voltage ranges given in the qualified welding procedure specification. Gas welding equipment shall be operated with the flame characteristics and tip sizes given in the qualified welding procedure specification.
Equipment that does not meet these requirements shall be repaired or replaced. This standard also applies to materials with chemical and mechanical properties that comply with one of the specifications listed in items a through e above, even though the material is not manufactured in accordance with the specification. Filler Metals and Fluxes 4. Filler metals and fluxes that do not conform to the specifications listed may be used, provided they have been utilized during welding procedure qualification.
Filler metals and fluxes in opened containers shall be protected from deterioration, and filler metals that are coated shall be protected from excessive changes in moisture. Filler metals and fluxes that show signs of damage or deterioration shall not be used. The shielding atmosphere to be used shall be qualified for the material and the welding process. Atmospheres for shielding an arc are of several types and should consist of inert gases, active gases, or mixtures of inert and active gases.
Gases shall not be field intermixed in their containers. Gases of questionable purity and those in containers that show signs of damage shall not be used. NOTE 1 additions. Section 12 applies to the qualification of welding procedures using mechanized welding with filler metal Before production welding is started, a detailed welding procedure specification shall be established and qualified to demonstrate that sound welds with suitable mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and hardness can be made by the procedure.
The acceptance of the procedure qualification welds shall be determined by destructive testing in accordance with 5. NOTE 2 Multiple qualification welds may be combined to qualify a range of essential variables within one welding procedure specification. The record shall document at a minimum the actual observed values for the variables to be specified per 5.
The record shall be maintained as long as the procedure is in use. NOTE 5. Welding Procedure Specification General The welding procedure specification shall include the information specified in 5. The tolerance ranges for cap height and width shall be specified for groove welds.
The shape and size tolerance ranges of fillet welds shall be shown. If a backing is used, the type shall be specified. When different numbers of beads and sequences of beads apply to different thickness ranges within the specified thickness range on the WPS, the number of beads and sequences shall be designated for company-defined subsets of the thickness range. The specified ranges need not replicate either the recommended ranges or the observed ranges used in welding procedure qualification.
When required by Table 1, the heat input and the method of calculating heat input shall be specified. The size of the orifice in the torch tip for each size of rod or wire shall be specified. The time shall be expressed as minutes or hours. If a clamp is used, the minimum percentage of root bead completed before the clamp is released shall be specified.
The maximum interpass temperature shall be specified. Specified ranges for speed of travel need not replicate, but should be representative of the speed of travel used during procedure qualification.
PWHT procedures shall include method of application, heating rate, temperature range, time at temperature, and cooling rate. Changes to essential variables shall necessitate requalification of the welding procedure specification or establishment and qualification of a new welding procedure specification.
Essential Variable Categories The variables and qualification ranges specified in Table 1 are separated into two different categories. X X b A change between manual application or semiautomatic application. X X a A change from fillet weld to groove weld, but not vice versa. X X b A major change in joint type. When the filler metal used is not identified in Table 2, a change in AWS specification, AWS classification, or, for filler metals not having an assigned AWS specification or classification, a change in the nominal composition.
The deletion of or change in nominal composition of backing gas when backing gas is used during qualification. A change in the method of deliberate cooling after welding, resulting in a higher rate of cooling. An increase in the maximum weld temperature prior to deliberate cooling.
The elimination of postheating for the purpose of promoting hydrogen diffusion. Any reduction in postheating time at temperature from that used during qualification. The addition or deletion of PWHT. X X c a b c The subsection numbers in this column are provided for referencing purposes. A change to or from a compound bevel within a major joint type is not considered a major change in joint type.
Weld metal is not considered weld backing. A change from A1 to C3, or vice versa, does not constitute an essential variable. Sampling of parameters for waveform-controlled processes should be at a sampling frequency no less than 10 kHz.
The method used for recording and calculating heat input during production monitoring should be the same as that used during procedure qualification. Welding of Test Joints�Butt Welds To weld the test joint for butt welds, two pipe nipples shall be joined. The minimum number of test specimens and the tests to which they shall be subjected are given in Table 3.
For pipe less than 2. For pipe less than or equal to 1. The full-section specimen shall be tested in accordance with 5. All specimens shall be air cooled to ambient temperature prior to being tested. When radiography or UT results are unacceptable, the procedure is rejected. Tensile Strength Test 5. NOTE 1 A specimen may be cut using any method, and no other preparation is needed unless the sides are notched or are not parallel. NOTE 2 The weld metal reinforcement may be removed. The tensile strength shall be computed by dividing the maximum load at failure by the smallest cross-sectional area of the specimen, as measured before the load is applied.
If the specimen breaks outside the weld i. If the specimen breaks in the weld and the observed strength is greater than or equal to the SMTS of the pipe material and meets the soundness requirements of 5.
When welding material of different grades, the SMTS of the lower grade shall be used as the acceptance criteria. NOTE Any specimen that fails due to improper specimen preparation or testing may be replaced and retested. NOTE 1 Nick break specimens prepared in this manner from welds made with certain mechanized and semiautomatic processes may fail through the pipe instead of the weld. This does not exclude other testing methods. The dimensions should be measured as shown in Figure 6.
Fisheyes, as defined in AWS A3. If either of the replacement nick break specimens fail, the weld shall be considered unacceptable. They may be cut by any means. The cover and root bead reinforcements shall be removed flush with the surfaces of the specimen. These surfaces shall be smooth, and any scratches that exist shall be light and transverse to the weld.
The specimen shall not be flattened prior to testing. Face bend specimens shall be bent so that the face is centered on the bend radius and becomes the convex surface of the bend specimen. The company shall specify the bend test fixture and bend radii.
The radii shall not be greater than the radii specified in Figure 8. NOTE This figure is not drawn to scale. Figure 8�Jig for Guided-bend Tests 5. If either of the replacement bend test specimens fails, the weld shall be considered unacceptable.
Side Bend Test 5. The sides shall be smooth and parallel. Side bend specimens shall be bent so that one of the side surfaces is centered on the bend radius and becomes the convex surface of the bend specimen. The company shall specify the bend radii. If either of the replacement side bend test specimens fails, the weld shall be considered unacceptable.
NOTE All dimensions are approximate. At least four specimens shall be taken and prepared as shown in Figure NOTE The specimens may be cut by any means. The specimens should be at least 1 in. For pipes less than 2. It may be necessary to make two test welds to obtain the required number of test specimens; two specimens shall be removed from each of the two test welds. The specimens shall be air cooled to ambient temperature prior to testing.
When required by the company, the company shall specify the details of specimen preparation, testing, and acceptance criteria for measurement of hardness or toughness. Method The branch or fillet weld specimens shall be broken in the weld by any convenient method. Each welder shall be qualified according to the applicable requirements of 6.
It is possible to qualify a WPS and a welder with one test joint. It is the intent of this standard that a welder who satisfactorily completes the procedure qualification test shall be a qualified welder, provided the number of test specimens required by 6. In such cases, verified compliance to a WPS is not required as the welder will be establishing the WPS parameters as part of the qualification process. Replacement shall be allowed for the welding procedure qualification testing, even though the welder s was disqualified.
NOTE The essential variables associated with procedure and welder qualifications are not identical. The essential variables for welder qualification are specified in 6. Prior to starting the qualification tests, the welder shall be allowed reasonable time to adjust the welding equipment to be used. The welder shall follow the requirements of the applicable qualified welding procedure specification unless the welder is welding a procedure qualification test joint.
The qualification of welders shall be conducted in the presence of a representative acceptable to the company. A welder shall qualify for welding by performing a test joint. When segments of pipe nipples are used for a test joint, they shall be supported so that typical flat, vertical, and overhead welds are produced.
Specimens shall not be removed from locations where weld beads deposited by one welder overlap weld beads deposited by the other welder. For options 2 and 3 , all the required test specimens required by 6. Welders shall fit-up the test joint in addition to making the test welds. Templates may be used to assist in the preparation of test joints. When two welders are used to fill the joint thickness, each welder shall have a weld on one surface i. A defect s shall disqualify both welders regardless of the location of the defect s.
For half-circumference dual-welder qualification, the failure of a test joint from one half of the weld circumference shall not impact the qualification of the other welder who welded the other half of the weld circumference.
A welder who qualifies as an in-service branch welder in accordance with Annex B shall be considered qualified to make non-in-service branch and fillet welds unless prohibited by the company. A welder who qualifies as an in-service fillet welder in accordance with Annex B shall be considered qualified to make nonin-service fillet welds unless prohibited by the company.
A branch or fillet welder who is qualified in this manner shall be limited to the applicable range of essential variables described in 6. Welders shall not be considered to have a Section 6 multiple qualification by combining welds made in accordance with Section 6 and welds made in accordance with Annex B. For qualifications to make butt welds, the welder shall make a butt weld in either the rolled or the fixed position.
For the purpose of single qualification, the company shall decide if the welder is allowed to use pre-beveled fittings as branches. The company shall decide if welders are required to cut weld bevels for butt welds or for pipe nipples used as branches. Changes in the essential variables described in 6. The welder shall not be restricted to welding only with the welding procedure followed during qualification testing, but is limited by the essential variables of the welder qualification.
The weld shall be acceptable if it meets the requirements of 6. Scope A welder who has successfully completed the qualification test described in 6.
The welder shall be requalified if any of the following essential variables are changed: a A change from one welding process to another welding process or combination of processes, as follows: 1 a change from one welding process to a different welding process; or 2 a change in the combination of welding processes, unless the welder has qualified on separate qualification tests, using each of the welding processes that are to be used for the combination of welding processes.
A change from one specified OD group to another; however, for branch connection welds, the run pipe diameter is not an essential variable. These groups are defined as follows: 1 specified OD less than 2. A change from one specified wall thickness group to another; however, for branch connection welds and lap fillet welds, the run pipe thickness is not an essential variable.
These groups are defined in Table 5. A welder who qualifies in the fixed position shall also be qualified to perform rolled welds within the essential variables qualified. A welder who qualifies on a butt weld shall also be qualified to make fillet welds within the essential variables qualified. NOTE The weld positions qualified by various branch orientations and branch-to-header size ratios are summarized in Table 6.
However, the welder may make production welds using only the process or processes used for fill and cap passes even if the test weld used a combination of processes. When the process used for fill passes in testing is used to make a complete production weld, the process shall have been used for three or more passes in the testing. Processes used for less than three passes in testing shall not be used for more than two passes in a production weld.
Both test welds shall be welded using the same process or combination of processes and the same filler metal group or groups in Table 4. NOTE 1 The two tests may be given in any order. This butt weld shall be made on pipe with an OD of at least 6. Specimens shall be removed either from the test weld at the locations shown in Figure 12, at the relative locations shown in Figure 12 but without reference to the top of the pipe, or from locations that are spaced equidistantly around the entire pipe circumference.
The sequence of adjacent specimen types shall be identical to that shown in Figure 12 for the various pipe diameters. Specimens shall not include the longitudinal weld. See Figure Examples of precautions include use of tack welds or fixturing. For the other test, the welder shall lay out, cut, fit, and weld a branch-on-pipe connection in which the specified diameters of the run and the branch pipes are equal.
This test shall be performed with a pipe diameter of at least 2. When small-diameter pipe is used for testing, more than one test weld may be required to obtain the required number of test specimens. A hole with a specified diameter approximately equal to the inside diameter ID of the branch pipe shall be cut in the run. The company shall decide if the welder shall cut the hole in preparation of the branch assembly.
Use of templates to assist in layout shall be at the discretion of the company. Use of manually operated mechanisms that assist in accurate cutting of the hole or to prepare the branch bevel shall be at the discretion of the company.
The weld shall be made with the run pipe in the fixed horizontal position, with the branch pipe axis extending either vertically downward from the run pipe or projecting from the side of the run pipe.
If the welder fails either the butt or the branch test weld, the welder shall be required to retest only for the failed weld. The welder shall not be required to repeat both the butt and the branch test weld unless required by the company.
The welds shall be acceptable if they meet the requirements of 6. A welder who has successfully completed the butt weld and branch weld requirements of 6. If any of the following essential variables are changed in a welding procedure specification, the welder using the new procedure shall be requalified: a A change from one welding process to another welding process or combination of processes, as follows: 1 a change from one welding process to a different welding process; or 2 a change in the combination of welding processes, unless the welder has qualified on separate qualification tests, each using the same welding process that is used for the combination of welding processes.
However, the welder shall also be qualified to make production welds using only the process or processes used for fill and cap passes even if the test weld used a combination of processes. A change of filler metal classification not listed in Table 4 to any other filler metal classification or vice versa.
For a butt weld, no burn-through BT shall be allowed. The sum of the maximum dimensions of separate unrepaired BTs in any continuous in. External undercut and internal undercut, when practical shall be evaluated to the requirements of 9. All dimensional requirements specified in the WPS shall be met. When semiautomatic or mechanized welding is used, filler wire protruding into the inside of the pipe shall be kept to a minimum.
The company shall determine the acceptance criteria for the number of protruding wires. Failure to meet the requirements of this section shall be adequate cause to eliminate additional testing. Figure 12 shows the locations from which the specimens shall be removed if the test weld is a full circumference.
Figure 13 shows the locations from which the specimens shall be removed if the test weld is completed as a half circumference. If the test weld consists of segments of pipe nipples, an approximately equal number of specimens shall be removed from each segment.
The total number of specimens and the tests to which each shall be submitted are shown in Table 7. The specimens shall not include the longitudinal weld. For pipe with an OD less than or equal to 1. If a full-section tensile is used and the specimen breaks in the weld or at the junction of the weld and the parent material and fails to meet the soundness requirements of 5. Replacement of a nick break specimen is not permitted for welder qualifications.
Bend Test Requirements for Butt Welds For the bend tests, if any specimen shows imperfections that exceed those allowed by 5. Welds shall not be rejected solely for failure of the specimen to bend to the full U shape. These welds shall be considered acceptable if the specimens that crack are broken apart and their exposed surfaces meet the requirements of 5.
The welder shall be disqualified if the additional specimen also shows imperfections that exceed the specified limits. Branch and Fillet Weld Test Requirements Four nick break specimens shall be removed from the weld at the locations shown in Figure They shall be prepared and tested in accordance with 5. The exposed surfaces shall meet the requirements of 5. The welder shall be disqualified if any of the test welds do not meet the requirements of 9.
When AUT is utilized, each test weld shall be fully examined. Radiographic testing or AUT shall not be used for the purpose of locating sound areas or areas that contain imperfections and subsequently destructively testing such areas to qualify or disqualify a welder. No further retests shall be given until the welder has submitted proof of subsequent welder training that is acceptable to the company.
If the company elects to use both nondestructive tests and destructive tests to evaluate a welder test joint, failure to meet the acceptance criteria of either test shall result in failure of the test weld. In addition to the results of NDT or destructive test results, Figure 1�or a similar form developed to suit the needs of the individual company�should be used. Forms should be sufficiently detailed to demonstrate that the qualification test met the workmanship requirements of this standard and that the welder welded within the parameter ranges specified on the applicable WPS during the qualification test.
A list of qualified welders and the procedures for which they are qualified shall be maintained. The surfaces to be welded shall be smooth, uniform, and free from laminations, tears, scale, slag, grease, paint, and other deleterious material that might adversely affect the welding.
For production welding of materials with two separate strength levels, a procedure that is qualified for the higher-strength material should be used. NOTE While it is acceptable according to 5. The use of filler metal with yield strength that matches or overmatches the actual yield strength of the pipe material prevents longitudinal strains from accumulating in the weld region, which is more likely to contain imperfections than the pipe material.
The alignment of abutting ends shall minimize the offset between surfaces. Hammering of the pipe to obtain proper lineup should be kept to a minimum and hinging of the pipe joint i. If the clamp can be removed prior to root pass completion, the percentage required by the welding procedure specification shall be met and should be equally spaced around the circumference. Windshields or temporary shelters may be used when practical. The company shall decide if weather conditions are suitable for welding.
When the pipe is welded in a trench, the bell hole shall be large enough to provide the welder or welders with ready access to the joint. Power tools shall be used when called for in the welding procedure specification; otherwise, cleaning may be performed with either hand or power tools. When semiautomatic or mechanized welding is used, surface porosity clusters, bead starts, and high points should be removed by grinding before weld metal is deposited over them. When requested by the company, heavy glass deposits shall be removed before weld metal is deposited over them.
Filler and Finish Beads The number of filler and finish beads shall allow the completed weld a substantially uniform cross-section around the entire circumference of the pipe. At no point shall the crown surface fall below the outside surface of the pipe, nor should it be raised above the parent metal by more than that specified in the welding procedure specification.
Two beads shall not be started at the same location. The cap width should conform to the tolerances specified in the welding procedure specification. The completed weld shall be thoroughly brushed and cleaned. The inspection may be made during the welding or after the weld has been completed. The frequency of inspection shall be as specified by the company.
In the latter case, more extensive inspection to determine the imperfection size is required. Destructive testing shall consist of the removal of completed welds, sectioning of the welds into specimens, and the examination of the specimens. The specimens shall be prepared in accordance with and shall meet the requirements of 6. The company shall have the right to accept or reject any weld that does not meet the requirements for the method by which it was inspected.
NOTE 1 work. Trepanning methods of testing shall not be used. Their qualifications shall be acceptable to the company. Documentation of these qualifications shall be retained by the company and shall include but is not limited to the following: a education and experience; b training; c results of any qualification examinations.
Record A record of certified NDT personnel shall be maintained by the company. The record shall include the results of certification tests, the agency and person granting certification, and the date of certification. NOTE ability. Vision Examinations 8. Non-NDT personnel i. Color differentiation examinations shall be repeated at least every five years. They may also be applied to visual inspection. NOTE One or both root faces may be inadequately filled at the inside surface.
NOTE The cold lap shown is not surface connected. For any areas that exceed the density of the thinnest adjacent parent material, the IC shall be considered a defect.
Slag Inclusions 9. Elongated slag inclusions ESIs �for example, continuous or broken slag lines or wagon tracks�are found at the fusion zones. Isolated slag inclusions ISIs are irregularly shaped and may be located anywhere in the weld. In that event, they shall be considered separate indications; c the aggregate length of ESI indications in any continuous in. Porosity 9. Undercutting Undercutting, as defined in 3.
NOTE See 9. Accumulation of Imperfections Excluding inadequate penetration due to high-low and undercutting, any accumulation of imperfections shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a the aggregate length of indications in any continuous in. The disposition of these imperfections shall be as directed by the company.
Magnetic and metallurgical variations may produce indications that are like those produced by imperfections but that are not relevant to acceptability.
The following criteria shall apply when indications are evaluated. Any larger indication believed to be nonrelevant shall be regarded as relevant until reexamined by magnetic particle or another NDT method to determine whether or not an actual imperfection exists.
The surface may be ground or otherwise conditioned before reexamination. After an indication is determined to be nonrelevant, other nonrelevant indications of the same type need not be reexamined. Acceptance Standards Linear indications are defined in 3. Rounded indications are defined in 3. Transverse indications are defined in 3. Rounded indications shall be evaluated according to the criteria of 9. For evaluation purposes, the maximum dimension of a rounded indication shall be considered its size.
NOTE When doubt exists about the type of imperfection being disclosed by an indication, verification may be obtained by using other NDT methods. Machining marks, scratches, and surface conditions may produce indications that are similar to those produced by imperfections but that are not relevant to acceptability. Any larger indication believed to be nonrelevant shall be regarded as relevant until reexamined by liquid penetrant or another NDT method to determine whether or not an actual imperfection exists.
Changes in the weld geometry due to alignment offset of abutting pipe ends, changes in weld reinforcement profile of ID root and OD capping passes, internal chamfering, and ultrasonic wave mode conversion due to such conditions may cause geometric indications that are similar to those caused by weld imperfections but that are not relevant to acceptability. Relevant indications shall be evaluated as per the requirements defined in the ultrasonic testing procedure.
Acceptance Standards 9. The letter T shall be used to designate all reported transverse indications. The acceptance standards in 9. Acceptance Standards When visual and mechanical means are used to determine depth, undercutting adjacent to the cover or root bead shall not exceed the dimensions given in Table 8.
When both mechanical and radiographic measurements are available, the mechanical measurements shall govern. Acceptance Standards When IC is detected by visual examination, any length of IC shall be considered a defect should the depth of the concavity be greater than the cap height at the same location relative to the length of the weld.
The full length of the defect being repaired in a single repair area shall be removed and repaired as part of the repair weld process; intentional partial repair of a defect is prohibited. However, if part of the original defect remains after repair and the repair weld meets the acceptance criteria of Section 9, the repair weld shall be considered acceptable.
New indications introduced by the repair weld shall be acceptable if the acceptance criteria is satisfied. Defects rejected by Annex A shall be repaired along the full length of the identified defect.
Company authorization shall be required for the following: a crack repair; b back weld repair; c double repair; and d repair of a weld in pipe with a specified OD less than 2.
Unless mandated by the company, authorization is not required for any other type of repair. Repair Procedure Application Requirements A qualified repair procedure shall be required whenever a repair is made by welding when: a using a welding procedure different from that used to make the original weld; b repairs are made in a previously repaired area double repair ; c a crack s is repaired; d a back weld repair when a back weld was not part of the original welding procedure; or e required by the company.
A repair procedure qualified for a double repair shall be acceptable to use for a single repair. A repair procedure that is qualified for a repair of a weld with a crack shall be acceptable to use to repair other defect types. Crack Repairs A weld containing a crack defect s shall either be repaired or cut out.
Crater or star crack defect s found and contained completely in internal or external weld reinforcement may be repaired by grinding i. If grinding to remove a crater or star crack defect s exceeds the internal or external reinforcement, the reinforcement shall be replaced using a qualified welding procedure. A cut-out is required when either of the following conditions exist. The length of a crack is the longest dimension regardless of orientation. Additional cracking in the weld area after repair shall require a cut-out.
Multiple Repairs in a Repair Area Only two repairs to the same repair area i. NOTE Grinding repair lengths and the number of grinding repair areas are not limited. Grinding repairs do not require use of a qualified repair procedure.
Repair Area Length The length of any individual repair area or total length of all accumulated repair areas within a completed weld shall not exceed a percentage of weld length specified by the company.
All repair areas shall have a length of at least 2 in. The repair weld shall meet the minimum requirements of the production weld or as otherwise specified by the company.
Types of Repair Procedures Types of repair procedures include but are not limited to the following: a full-thickness repair; b internal partial-thickness repair; c external partial-thickness repair; d cover pass repair; e back weld repair. Specification Information Repair weld procedures shall be revised to show any changes and shall include the following. Essential Variables A repair procedure shall be reestablished as a new repair procedure and shall be requalified when any of the essential variables listed in Table 1 or those shown in Table 9 are changed.
Essential variables as listed in Table 9 supersede those listed in Table 1 when any conflict exists. Essential variables in Table 1 and Table 9 shall apply to the repair weld only, not the original production weld.
The variables and qualification ranges specified in Table 9 are classified as two categories. Category I essential variables shall apply for all repair welding procedures. If a specific welding process or consumable for a pass or pass grouping is not used as allowed by X b A change from centerline to fusion line location for cover pass repairs. Welding Variable Subsectiona A full circumferential butt weld shall be used to qualify a repair procedure.
Multiple repair procedures may be qualified on a single production weld in location s specified by the company provided each repair weld is a minimum of 8 in. Length shall be sufficient for all test specimens. NOTE A single full-circumference test weld joint may be used to qualify more than one type of repair procedure i.
Details for each repair procedure shall be recorded with the complete results in the procedure qualification record.
At a minimum, the data and information documenting the observed values of essential variables for the repair weld used during qualification testing shall be recorded.
A form similar to that shown in Figure 1 should be used. Testing of Repair Welds For repair procedure qualification, sample preparation and destructive and visual testing shall not commence until the repair weld has been allowed to cool to ambient temperature. Accelerated cooling may not be used to reduce the time for the weld to cool to ambient temperature unless deliberate cooling is a requirement of the WPS. The minimum total number of specimens and the types of destructive tests to which each repair procedure shall be submitted are shown in Table At the discretion of the company, additional types and number of tests may be required.
The repair welder and repair welding procedure may be qualified simultaneously, provided two nick breaks are added in the locations as specified by Table When the production weld that is to be repaired has toughness requirements, the repair procedure shall demonstrate the ability to meet those same requirements. This may be demonstrated through Charpy impact testing or other testing as specified by the company. This requirement applies to partial-thickness and fullthickness repair procedures only.
When the production weld that is to be repaired has hardness requirements, the repair procedure should demonstrate the ability to meet those same requirements. NOTE 2 Charpy impact testing is required when performed for the original weld procedure. Tensile and Bend Tests The test specimen preparation, test method, and acceptance requirements in 5.
The test specimens may be taken from the repair weld in any order; a specific sequence is not specified. Each test of weld metal or HAZ shall consist of at least three valid specimens. The exact size of the specimens depends on the weld thickness, but the largest possible size shall be selected. The notch shall be oriented in the through-thickness direction as shown in Figure A. Retesting is permitted when no more than one specimen fails and when approved by the company.
When retesting is performed a new set of three test specimens shall be extracted from a location as close as possible to the location of the specimens that generated the low result. The absorbed energy of all three retest specimens shall meet or exceed the average absorbed energy requirement of the original specimens.
At least one face should be ground and polished to at least a grit finish and etched with a suitable etchant such as Nital, ammonium persulfate, or dilute hydrochloric acid to give a clear definition of the weld structure.
Any other defects associated with the repair weld shall be within the applicable individual size limits specified in Section 9. A cross-section showing defects that are not associated with the repair weld portion of the completed weld shall not disqualify the test. The required number of indentations shall be made using a Vickers indenter using a kg load or less.
Locations shall be as shown in Figures 22 through 27, or at locations otherwise specified by the company. If subsequent repairs e. The wall thickness of the test coupon may restrict the total number of indents that are specified in the figures below. The number of indents should be reduced as needed to maintain indent spacing.
Maximum hardness values for repair welds should not exceed those given in Table 12 unless otherwise specified by the company. NOTE 2 For sour service, see applicable governing standard or specification document. A qualified repair welder shall be also required when making a full-thickness repair using the original production welding procedure.
The repair welder and repair welding procedure may be qualified simultaneously, provided a tensile specimen is added when required per Table The purpose of the repair welder qualification test is to determine the ability of welders to make sound repair welds. A single welder shall deposit the entire repair thickness for the qualification test weld; qualification may not be split between two or more welders. The welder shall be qualified per the requirements of this section. The welder shall qualify by depositing a repair weld, following all details of a repair procedure, into a fully completed circumferential butt weld.
The welder performing the qualification test shall not be required to weld the original weld joint that will be used during qualification. The repair welder shall prepare their own repair groove, in addition to completing the repair weld, in the position to be qualified see A single fullcircumference test joint may be used to qualify more than one welder or a welder for more than one type of repair.
The test joint can be repositioned to deposit the repair weld in the position designated by the company. The repair weld shall be deposited in the fixed position for each repair type to be qualified in the location s specified by the company, unless the repair weld will be rolled.
The repair weld length shall be adequate for the number of specimens required by Table 14 and should be 8 in. Details of the repair welder qualification shall be recorded and maintained in accordance with 6. In addition to the requirements of 6.
An example record of welder essential variables and other welding variables is shown in Table A form should be developed to suit the needs of the individual company, and should be sufficiently detailed to demonstrate that the qualification test met the requirements of this standard. The total number of specimens and the test to which each shall be submitted are shown in Table The destructive testing requirements shall follow 6.
Excluding nick break specimens, the test specimens can be taken from the repair weld in any order; a specific sequence is not specified. A failed bend test specimen may be replaced in accordance with 6. Radiography shall meet the requirements of 9. Only the repair weld area shall be inspected. A welder who fails to pass the repair welder qualification test s shall be permitted to retest as described in 6.
Qualification Limits A repair welder who has successfully completed the qualification test described in Pipe diameter shall not be an essential variable for a repair welder. If any of the following essential variables are changed, the repair welder using a repair procedure shall be requalified.
A change in the combination of repair welding processes, unless the welder has qualified on separate qualification tests, using each of the repair welding processes that are to be used for the combination of repair welding processes.
When more than one process is used to complete the joint, a change of the welding process used for the pass types i. However, the welder may make repair welds using only the process or processes used for fill and cap passes even if the test weld used a combination of processes, provided When the process used for fill passes in testing is used to make a complete repair weld, the process shall have been used for three or more passes in the testing.
Processes used for less than three passes in testing shall not be used for more than two passes in a repair weld. The welder is qualified to weld a maximum deposited thickness of two times the deposited repair weld thickness in the repair welder qualification test.
Qualification on the top of the pipe flat only qualifies for that position. Qualification on the side of the pipe vertical qualifies to weld on the side and top of the pipe. Qualification in the horizontal position pipe oriented in 2G qualifies to weld horizontally and on the top of the pipe.
Qualification in the 5G in the overhead position qualifies for all positions except for horizontal welding pipe oriented in 2G. A qualification scheme using c and d qualifies the welder for all positions. Qualification in the 6G, in the overhead position, qualifies the welder for all positions. A change from rolled to fixed position. A welder who qualifies in the fixed position shall also be qualified to perform rolled repair welds within the essential variables qualified.
The specified direction of vertical progression, up or down, is not intended to prevent welders from welding across the top dead center or bottom dead center of a pipe oriented in the horizontal position to avoid stacking starts and stops. A repair welder who successfully passes a qualification test in the 6G position, as per For all other weld passes, a change of filler metal classification from Group 1 or 2 to any other group or from any Group 3 through 8 to Group 1 or 2 see Table 2. A change of filler metal classification not listed in Table 2 to any other filler metal classification or vice versa.
A change from external partial-thickness to full-thickness, internal partial-thickness, or back weld. A change from internal partial-thickness to full-thickness. A change from back weld to any other repair type. A change from cover pass to any other repair type. Welding inspection personnel shall meet the requirements of 8.
Repairs shall be documented, and the documentation maintained by the company. NDT of a repair weld shall include, at a minimum, the total repair area plus 2 in. Repairs shall be considered acceptable when the repair area meets the standards of acceptability of Section 9 or the acceptance criteria specified by Annex A, Option 3.
Visual testing shall be considered adequate when the defect is rejected by visual means and repaired by grinding without the addition of weld metal.
When in-process NDT is required, the company shall define the acceptance criteria. A detailed procedure for the production of radiographic image s shall be established and documented.
Radiographic image s produced by the use of this procedure shall meet the requirements of the applicable subsection as it pertains to sensitivity, resolution, radiographic image quality, intensity, or density as applicable. The following criteria shall be used to evaluate radiographic image s : a an acceptable radiographic image quality that is free from artifacts, fog, or other types of processing irregularities that could mask the image of actual imperfections; 72 API STANDARD b IQIs�The type of material, ASTM or ISO identification, and the following type of IQI used shall appear clearly in the radiographic image: 1 wire type: the essential wire across the area of interest; or 2 hole type: the essential hole and IQI outline on at least three sides; c a satisfactory identification system; d an acceptable technique and setup; e compatibility with acceptance standards.
All requirements that refer to the quality of the resulting radiographic image s shall apply equally when using X-rays and gamma rays. The use of radiographic testing and the frequency of its use shall be at the option of the company. The company and the radiographic contractor should agree on the radiographic procedure or procedures to be used prior to the performance of production radiography. The company shall require the contractor to demonstrate and use procedures that produce acceptable radiographic image s.
Details of Procedure A copy of the record shall be furnished to the company for its records. At a minimum, each procedure shall include the details listed in The diaphragm for the energy selected shall have a half-value layer HVL thickness of at least The procedure shall clearly define the means of control and means of measuring total image unsharpness.
The procedure shall clearly identify the means for determining source-side geometric unsharpness and shall ensure that the source-side geometric unsharpness of the weld does not exceed 0. Exposure Geometry When the outside diameter of the piping containing the weld is 3. For in-motion imaging, the exposure geometry shall be evaluated at the maximum scanning speed to be used during the radiographic testing of the complete weld.
Acquired scan lengths shall be verified to ensure full coverage of the butt weld has been obtained. The IQI shall be made of a material that is radiographically similar to the material being welded. For purposes of IQI selection, the thickness of the weld shall mean the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses being joined plus the weld reinforcement internal plus external combined.
Wire type shall be placed across the weld or hole type shall be placed adjacent to the weld on the film, PIP, or detector side. The IQIs shall be spaced approximately equally around the circumference of the pipe.
One IQI shall be within 1 in. When the film, PIP, or detector image length to be interpreted is 5 in. When it is not practical to place an IQI on the weld due to weld configuration or size, the IQI may be placed on a separate block. Separate blocks shall be made of the same or radiographically similar material, and may be used to facilitate IQI positioning.
The thickness of the separate block material should be the same as the thickness of the weld and shall not be closer than the source side of the weld being inspected.
Acceptability of such IQI placement shall be demonstrated during procedure qualification. Shims For hole-type IQIs, shims of material that is radiographically similar to that of the pipe and equivalent in thickness to the average weld reinforcement shall be placed under the IQI.
The shim dimensions shall exceed the IQI dimensions such that the outline of at least three sides of the IQI are visible in the radiographic image.
Radiographers shall report to the company all defects observed in the radiographic image s unless the company requires that all imperfections observed be reported. The radiographer shall indicate whether the weld meets the requirements of Section 9.
The company shall determine the final disposition of the weld. Identification of Radiographic Image s Image s shall be clearly identified by the use of lead numbers, lead letters, markers, or other identification so that the weld and any imperfections in it can be quickly and accurately located.
NOTE The company may specify the identification procedure to be used. The last reference marker on each end of the image shall appear on the appropriate adjacent image s in a way that establishes that no part of the weld has been omitted. At a minimum, the weld identification and location markers shall appear as part of the radiographic image captured during exposure.
All other documentation can be attached to the image as a text box, overlay, or flashed image. Any edits or corrections needed to the identification s of a radiographic image shall have prior documented approval from the company before edits or corrections are to be made.
Storage of Film and Other Imaging Media If any question arises about the condition of the unexposed film, sheets from the front and back of each package or a length of film equal to the circumference of each original roll shall be processed in the normal manner without exposure to light or radiation. If the processed film shows fog, the entire box or roll from which the test film was removed shall be discarded, unless additional tests prove that the remaining film in the box or roll is free from pre-exposure fog exceeding 0.
Film Requirements It shall be equipped to prevent light coming from around the outer edge of the radiograph or through low-density portions of the radiograph from interfering with interpretations. The image processing area and all accessories shall be kept clean at all times. At a minimum, the information shall be provided from Computed Radiography CR Requirements A verified scanned pixel size of the image is the preferred method.
Alternatively: a a known dimensional comparator shall be placed in direct contact with the cassette prior to exposure; or b a known dimensional comparator shall be inscribed on the imaging plate prior to processing; or c a known comparator scale shall be placed on the imaging plate prior to processing. Final radiographic interpretation shall be performed on the data within this IQI sensitivity range.
The digital image may be viewed and evaluated in a negative or positive image format; however, the area of interest and IQI shall be of the same format.
Magnification may be used in the evaluation of the digital image and shall be agreed upon between the company and radiographic contractor. The company and the NDT contractor should agree on the magnetic particle testing procedure or procedures prior to the performance of production testing. The company shall require the contractor to demonstrate that the proposed procedures will produce acceptable results, and shall require the contractor to use such procedures for production testing.
The company and the NDT contractor should agree on the liquid penetrant testing procedure or procedures prior to the performance of production testing. The company shall require the contractor to demonstrate that the proposed procedures will produce acceptable results and shall require the contractor to use such procedures for production testing. The use of ultrasonic testing and the scope of its use shall be at the option of the company.
The company shall require the ultrasonic system to be qualified and then demonstrated by the ultrasonic contractor. Detailed procedures for the use of the individual ultrasonic techniques manual and automated shall be established to cover the entire volume of the weld, including the heat-affected zone. Within the qualification data set, the worst cases of oversizing and undersizing shall be evaluated by the company. The methodology for the determination of the proposed inspection error shall be defined by the contractor and approved by the company.
The company shall require the ultrasonic contractor to demonstrate the UT procedure.
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WebAPI published the 22nd edition of Standard , Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, updating an important global standard that supports industry-wide actions to strengthen . WebDownload Api (welding Of Pipelines And Related Facilities).pdf. Type: PDF. Date: October Size: MB. This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed . WebAPI , base metal Specification and grade in WPS is "API-5L-Grade X65 through ASTM A Gr. A Cl.2, WPHY X65", company representative rejected WPS due to dissimilar .