Every one of the Anker 's good ideas comes mired in caveats, and all the user tweaking in the world can't solve its fundamental design problems. The software deserves praise for making macros so easy to record and use, but otherwise, the feature set is pretty standard. Whereas, the range of 16 million colors empowers you to set your desired lighting color as profile indicator, that further embellishes the look of the device. Latest: smalltech 10 minutes ago. Question Uninitialized until download 2k16 for pc Post thread.
Solid-state chemistry also fuses key concepts with solid-state physics, metallurgy, crystallography and electronics due to their wide area of impact. Another important Class 12 chemistry chapter is solutions. A solution is defined as a homogenous blend which is made by mixing two or more solutes and solvents.
The element dissolved is called solute while the medium in which it is dissolved is called the solvent. One of the most universally used solvents is water.
Major topics covered in this chapter include solutions and their types, concentration and solubility of various solids and gases in liquids. A favourite topic for most examiners and a crucial chapter in the NCERT Class 12 chemistry textbook, electrochemistry is the conjoined study of electronics and chemistry.
It determines if an electric current has been produced due to a chemical reaction and vice versa. Such an electric current is produced when electrons travel to and from between the electrode and the electrolyte. Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry in which the rates of different chemical reactions are studied. It elaborates on how different experimental conditions such as temperature, reaction medium or usage of catalysts can affect the speed with which reactions usually take place.
While a reaction is taking place, the intermediate states, before the final product which is created, are also studied. Many mathematical calculations regarding rate calculation are also highlighted in the Class 12 chemistry NCERT book PDF, which should be practised rigorously by students. Surface chemistry, along with surface physics, deals with the chemical and physical changes on the surfaces which results in when two different states of matter come in contact.
Solid-liquid interfaces, solid-vacuum interfaces and liquid-gas interfaces are some of the most common areas where research takes place. Applications of surface chemistry are studied as surface engineering. This is an important chapter in the NCERT Chemistry Class 12 PDF, students should have a brief idea of the adsorption of liquids and gases, which is a common theme in surface chemistry.
Many elements like gold, silver, carbon and Sulphur are present in the form of ores along with a plethora of other elements, which are then isolated with the help of chemical reactions. These forms of element isolation have to be feasible enough to be performed under laboratory conditions. Different blocks of the periodic table are named differently by scientists based on their electronic configuration.
Following those rules, the elements present in groups 13 to 18 are called p-block elements and have a general configuration ns2np P-Block elements contain all three types of elements ï¿½ metals, nonmetals and metalloids and are the only group to have so. Similar to p-block elements, d and f-block elements are found in nature and included in the periodic table.
D-block ranges from groups 3 to 12 and starts with the 4th period. They are transition elements, between the highly electropositive elements in groups 1 and 2 and the weakly electropositive elements of groups 13 to The f-block elements usually appear as a footnote in the standard column periodic table and contain metals of periods 6 and 7. A vital topic in the NCERT Chemistry Class 12 PDF, coordination compounds are those compounds which have a metal ion in their centre called coordination centre with ions of other elements joined with the centre ion, called ligands.
The bonds between the metallic ion and its ligands are coordinated covalent bonds and are an area of prolonged study. Two types of hydrocarbons ï¿½ aliphatic and aromatic ï¿½ when forming bonds with halogen compounds, are called haloalkanes and haloarenes respectively. These halogen ions, due to their strong electronegativity, replace the hydrogen atoms in organic molecules and form such compounds.
The 12th NCERT chemistry PDF also mentions how the halogen atoms attach to the sp3 hybridised carbon in alkyl groups, while for aryl groups, they do so with the sp2 hybridized carbon. Such compounds are of particular importance and used in various ways in our day to day lives. One of the key topics in organic chemistry, alcohols and phenols are formed when an -OH group, respectively replace hydrogen atoms in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Alcohols and phenols find extensive usage in our daily lives and are a major constituent inside the food we eat. Ethers are compounds where the hydrogen atoms are replaced by an alkoxy R-O or aryloxy Ar-O group. Ethers are used in making fragrances. When carbon and hydrogen are attached to the carbonyl group, they are called aldehydes. If two carbon atoms bond with the group, they are known as ketones. And if the group bonds with an -OH group, it is called carboxylic acid. Like other organic compounds discussed before, amines are those compounds in which the hydrogen atoms in the ammonia NH3 molecule are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
Proteins and amino acids, which help in the intricate functioning of our muscles and other body parts, are all derivatives of amines. Amines contain a nitrogen atom and another lone pair of electrons. The functional group -NH2 is called the amino group. Even though biology and chemistry are different academic subjects, human bodies are the fusion of both of them.
We have thousands of different atoms and molecules inside our body, without which we cannot function. The study of how chemicals shape and help in the efficient working of human bodies is called biochemistry.
The most essential biomolecules inside our bodies are carbohydrates, proteins, fats and hormones. Polymers make up almost every tangible product which we use in our day to day lives. The most important polymer, plastic, is one of the most widely used products nowadays. If we look inside polymer molecules, we will notice repeating units called monomers, which are bound together with the help of covalent bonds.
Due to this repeating structure, polymers are macromolecules, with huge molecular mass. Simplified and logical language is used in order to boost the confidence of students. Moreover, pictorial representation is done wherever necessary to help students grasp concepts easily. The reasons why PDF solutions are important are listed below. The books assist students in preparing for the Class 12 exams confidently. The step-wise explanations provided for each concept help students understand the topics effortlessly.
The diagrams in each topic promote visual learning, which is important from the exam perspective. Post Comment. Did not receive OTP? Register For Free. Share Share Share Call Us. Download Now.
A top. Unit 1 The Solid State. Unit 2 Solutions. Unit 3 Electrochemistry. Unit 4 Chemical Kinetics. Unit 5 Surface Chemistry. Unit 7 The p-Block Elements.
Unit 8 The d- and f-Block Elements. Unit 9 Coordination Compounds. Unit 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
The books give an overview to the students as to what they can expect to be taught in class, as per the Class 12 CBSE Chemistry syllabus. Students can also use the textbook to clear the doubts they may get on the subject. Elaborated solutions enable students to understand the concepts efficiently. Numerical questions are provided with step-by-step explanations.
Simplified and logical language is used in order to boost the confidence of students. Moreover, pictorial representation is done wherever necessary to help students grasp concepts easily. The reasons why PDF solutions are important are listed below. The books assist students in preparing for the Class 12 exams confidently. The step-wise explanations provided for each concept help students understand the topics effortlessly.
The diagrams in each topic promote visual learning, which is important from the exam perspective. Post Comment. Did not receive OTP? Register For Free. Share Share Share Call Us. Download Now. A top. Unit 1 The Solid State. Unit 2 Solutions.
Unit 3 Electrochemistry. Unit 4 Chemical Kinetics. Unit 5 Surface Chemistry. Chapter 8: The d-and f-block elements. Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds. The part 2 of the NCERT Books Class 12 chemistry consists of 7 chapters which you can download by clicking on the links mentioned below. Download the same now. Chapter Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. Chapter Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers. Chapter Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic acids. Chapter Amines. Chapter Biomolecules.
Chapter Polymers. Chapter Chemistry in everyday life. The answer to the question of the aspirant is that UPSC goes into deep detail about the subject so to score the best, a candidate needs to prepare intelligently and deeply. The students can download all the PDFs by clicking on the links mentioned above.
These are essential and free to download. You will be able to find other subject PDFs too from our website. You can also take out the printout of any of these PDFs if you wish so. The free Testbook App is available to download. This app will help you in the preparation for several Government competitive exams at all levels with the help of the best mock tests, study material, quizzes, live classes, etc. The candidates must give their preparation a boom with Testbook.