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DNA methylation analysis, microRNAs, and genome sequencing of microorganisms provide scientific information for criminal investigation. The development of new-generation sequencing has set the perspective of analysis on establishing geographical origin of individuals, estimating marker frequency of different population groups around the world just as genetic markers of phenotypic expression allow acquiring information of visible external characteristics height, baldness, eye color, skin and hair , they provide help for criminal investigation.

This chapter focuses on the location, sampling, molecular analysis and management of biological evidence in sexual crimes, as well as on specific aspects and a panorama of their molecular analysis. The main areas of inspection are the floor, rugs, bathroom, bedding, and trash receptacles where other elements could be discarded by the aggressor during cleaning such as condoms; the inspection should be extended to the neighborhood if necessary [ 1 , 2 ].

In the search for signs of sexual contact, the investigator can identify evidence through naked eye observation; however, it is convenient to emphasize that evidence of contact is frequently not visible. These elements of BE require the use of forensic light sources for detection due to their natural characteristics, such as light absorption blood or fluorescence emissions semen, saliva, and urine.

This method is a simple, presumptive, and nondestructive test [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. In a SA investigation, it is necessary to identify any possible source of BE left on the victim or at the crime site e. Transportable evidences will be packed and sent to the laboratory. When BE are in non-transportable objects, the use of a dry or lightly moistened swab passed gently through and rotated in the same spot swabbing method is sufficient for recovery.

In the case of wet evidence, care should be taken to dry them to avoid damage of BE, by the growth of microorganisms that cause degradation of DNA [ 6 ]. The success of DNA typing is related to the amount of target material recovered from an evidentiary item. The use of double swabbing method are recomended to recovery of touched trace evidence; this technique increases the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles; however the use of cotton swabs is not recommended for trace evidence [ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ].

Figure 1 shows the workflow of evidence recovery from the crime scene. Evidence collection in sexual assault cases. Workflow of inspection, recovery and analysis of evidence from the crime scene, victims and perpetrator up to the genetic profile and human identification. Crime scene investigator CSI is in charge of collecting and analyzing crime scene evidence; medical examination: forensic medical examiner, medical technician or nurse; interrogation and sampling is done by a law enforcement agent and by the scientific police investigator; evidence analysis laboratory is done by the research scientists specialized in evidence analysis.

When a SA is reported, authorities order a medical interview and examination for evidence recovery; during the interview, the expert needs to document the type of sexual aggression penile-vaginal rape, oral, copulation, sodomy, penetration with foreign objects, or digital penetration , Personal hygiene, and the elapsed time after the incident are crucial; these information will indicate the type of sampling to be performed.

Additionally, the examiner will look for elements that are associated with aggression e. One source of evidence in SA investigation is the suspect or perpetrator. It is known that the evidence could potentially be transferred from the suspect to the victim and vice versa.

The biological evidence deposited on the victim and perpetrator deteriorates rapidly; therefore, it needs to be collected as soon as possible [ 14 ]. Figure 2 shows the evidence recovery guidelines.

Evidence recovery guidelines. Recommended time frame for evidence collection from different anatomical areas according to DNA persistence and its sampling methods in SA cases. The sperm cells are resistant to biological degradation compared to somatic cells; this rationale is supported by the knowledge that the protein composition of the sperm nucleus protamine acts as a protector of the damage caused by the nucleases, delaying the degradation process [ 15 ].

One of the first interventions is the macroscopic analysis that consists of evaluating evidence through meticulous and sequential observation, evaluating and establishing strategies to find biological spots. When BE is not visible to the naked eye, it is then necessary to use technological help: the forensic light sources with specific wavelengths for its detection [ 3 , 4 , 5 ] Figure 1. In daily forensic practice, the latent spots of some biological fluids such as semen, saliva, urine, and sweat require the application of light radiation with specific wavelengths for detection by fluorescence depending on their emission properties or absorption of light; although fibers and hairs are elements that can be observed without instruments, the lack of contrast in the background makes their visibility difficult; in such cases, the use of magnifying glasses or lights helps to generate shadows that can help to locate them.

Once identified, the BE on the area—depending of surface or support of the fluid—is taken with moistened swabs with sterile water, or a portion of support is cut to perform a presumptive or confirmatory analysis of the evidence.

In the case of trace evidence, it should be kept in its original support textile and analyzed ensuring sufficient evidence is left for subsequent trials [ 10 ]. The applications of presumptive chromatic reaction tests are useful for orientation in the identification of its nature and its selection of confirmatory test for determination of human origin through immunological tests. It is important to consider the amount of BE for the destructive processes for some test and to apply necessary measures for its preservation or greater use for subsequent studies.

Some forensic laboratories analyze semen through optic microscopes, aiming to identify the sperm cells. There is controversy regarding this procedure since a portion of the sample is separated from the original support, making it difficult to apply other analyses, even though it is important to consider it as minimal evidence for obtaining genetic profiles. On the other hand, laboratories use fluorescence microscopy for cytological preparations to apply fluorescent techniques that allow increasing the sensitivity in the detection of spermatozoa, confirming the presence of these cells in the analyzed fluids [ 16 , 17 ].

Figure 3 describes the advantages and disadvantages of presumptive and confirmatory forensic tests. The advantages and disadvantages of presumptive and confirmatory tests used in the laboratory to locate and identify the type of BE. BE: biological evidence; Bf: bright field microscopy; Ph: phase contrast microscopy. Biological cell mixtures represent one of the major challenges in forensic genetics.

In principle, when more individuals contribute to a mixture with different biological fluids, their single genetic profiles can be obtained by separating the distinct cell types [ 18 , 19 ]. There are standard DNA extraction methods developed to separate the sperms male fraction from the epithelial cells female fraction as preferential lysis; however, these methods are incapable of separating single-source sperm from multiple male donors [ 20 ].

There has been a recent use of modern tools to reach that goal. Laser microdissection LMD is a technology that has been around for more than 40 years; it combines the amplification power of a microscope with the precision cut of objects allowed by the laser technology.

Only in the last decade has LMD been used for forensic purposes, mainly in SA for isolating sperm cells from vaginal swabs [ 18 , 21 , 22 , 23 ]. The use of LMD in the forensic field was first described in as a way of recovering sperm cells from slide smears of SA cases. LMD allows the selection of individual cells based on morphologic analysis e. The microscopic search for sperm in cases where there is a limited number of cells can be exhaustive and prolonged [ 24 ].

However, this technology includes an automatic searching function module as introduced by the manufacturers [ 20 , 24 ]. Until today two variants of this technique are noted: laser capture microdissection harvesting cells by melting a thermoplastic membrane and laser cutting microdissection harvesting cells by catapulting.

The operating principles of these types of LMD are the identification of cells, using the laser to perform clean cuts in the supporting layer around them and not requiring physical manipulation of the cells eliminating the risk to foreign contamination [ 19 , 22 , 23 ]. The cell analysis in a mixture with an azoospermic or oligospermic contributor is more difficult. This is because in the absence of sperm cells, the male and female cells are indistinguishable; therefore, the use of specific fluorescent dyes is required [ 20 ].

The use of LMD does not always allow distinguishing the sperms in the microscopic bright field for several reasons: they can lose the tail; few sperms; or azoospermic cases. However, non-sperm cells can be found in semen, such as leukocytes and epithelial cells from the ejaculatory duct and urethra [ 18 , 25 ].

Fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH method allows distinguishing male cells from female ones in cellular mixtures. The LMD in combination with the FISH technology can greatly improve the identification and later separation of male non-spermic cells from epithelial female cells. This technique FISH with LMD has been shown to be capable of producing autosomal STR profiles from samples that previously would have proved difficult or impossible to separate; additionally, it has applications in numerous other sample types where the ratio of female cells to male cells is large, including cases involving penetration without ejaculation, digital penetration, or oral sex [ 18 , 27 ].

On the other hand, other separation methods [ 28 ] were developed which consisted of separating sperms from epithelial cells taking the difference in size and shape; this gave mixed genotypes in the results. Other new methods have also been proposed for cell separation, such as low-volume polymerase chain reaction LV-PCR used for single sperm isolation and detection, aspiration capillaries, microfluidic devices, the mDip technique, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting with flow cytometry, based on immunolabeling only applicable on fresh vaginal lavages and not on vaginal smears or archived material [ 20 ].

There are many extraction methods available, and they vary in their ability to extract the DNA in an efficient way; some of the factors to consider are the kind of sample to be analyzed, the time it takes to process, the operator intervention, the risk of contamination, and the difficulty or ease of use.

This is the basis for successful forensic DNA profiling [ 6 , 29 ]. The method of preference has the task to not only ensure that the DNA is efficiently extracted from each sample, but it must also remove possible inhibitors which may interfere with other processes like the amplification [ 29 ].

One of the most common techniques used in DNA extraction is Chelex, which is a chelating resin that uses ion exchange to bind transition metal ions protecting the DNA from degradation. When processing samples with inhibitors, it is advisable to use the organic extraction method, which requires lysis of cells carried out in a salt solution containing detergents and proteases to denature proteins and release the DNA from the cell.

This cocktail can be separated by using a mixture of phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol, which leaves the DNA in the aqueous phase. The extracted DNA can be concentrated from the aqueous phase by ethanol precipitation or with a centrifugal filter unit, which allows for additional purification and concentration of the DNA in the samples [ 6 , 29 , 31 ]. While this method remains one of the most reliable and efficient, it is also very time-consuming, uses hazardous chemicals, and, because of the greater hands-on effort and multiple tube transfers involved, introduces increased risks for contamination and sample mishandling [ 6 , 31 ].

The genetic analysis of the evidence collected in sexual crimes commonly includes genetic profiles of two or more contributors; in this kind of mixtures, the genetic contribution of the individuals is generally unbalanced. In some circumstances, the biological mixture presents a minimal level of one contributor, usually the perpetrator in cases of SA.

The genetic rate of this donor is likely not to be detected because of the sensitivity limits or the reaction saturation by the component that has more quantity. In most cases, the minor contributor in the DNA mixture cannot be detected when ratios exceed [ 29 ]. The recovery of evidence in cases of SA is a great challenge for the DNA forensic analysts, because it requires the separation of DNA from epithelial the victim and sperm perpetrator cells. The differential extraction was first described in by Gill and coworkers [ 33 ], as a modification of the organic phenol-chloroform extraction, and it is called differential lysis because the non-sperm cells are selectively lysed with detergent and proteases, while the sperm cells are not lysed due to the heavily disulfide cross-linked proteins in the sperm head that resist protease treatment [ 6 , 29 , 33 , 34 ].

In DNA forensic labs, the differential lysis method has long been the standard for separating spermatozoa from epithelial cells. There are other methods to separate sperm and epithelial cells from sexual assault samples. The use of this method in DNA laboratories indicates it offers efficiency equal to the two-step method for extracting sperm DNA from mixed stains [ 6 , 35 , 36 ].

The first use of DNA testing in a forensic setting came in ; two girls were sexually assaulted and then brutally murdered in and , in Leicestershire, England. This case showed an innocent being accused and 1 year later the guilty responsible one being found and processed [ 37 ].

In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. The PCR is a process of replicating a specific region on the genome, over and over again to yield many copies of a region [ 29 , 38 ].

This is essential in order to ensure its correct amplification; its primary purpose is to determine the amount of DNA template, resulting from the isolation. There are many methods with different accuracy, but knowing the DNA concentration present in the samples allows the forensic scientist to establish the ideal amount of DNA required for its amplification in order to make it possible to obtain a genetic profile that falls within the quality parameters set by the laboratory [ 29 , 39 ].

This will further impair the identification process through a series of stochastic effects, such as preferential amplification, which it is known to possibly affect PCR [ 29 , 40 ]. Short tandem repeat STR , also called microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats SSRs contain a core of nucleotides length that are tandemly repeated, and their use in forensic science opened a new path in human identification [ 29 , 40 , 41 ].

It is well known that STRs have a high degree of discrimination due to their hypervariable markers, which are useful when it is intended to involve the perpetrator in the crime scene or in the victim. Artifacts are a common challenge in forensic cases; biological ones stutter products, incomplete adenylation, etc.

By moving the PCR primers closer to the STR region, the product sizes can be reduced while retaining the same information [ 43 , 44 , 45 ]. The sex chromosomal STR indicates biological lineage of a person, obtaining a low power of exclusion between relatives.

Y-STR markers can play a role when mixed profiles of opposite sexes are involved, in cases where differential extraction is not possible, in an azoospermic male or in aged sexual stains [ 46 , 47 ]. The X-STR markers have a wide range of forensic applications and can be used for establishing the relationship between distant relatives, such as aunt, niece, and cousins [ 48 , 49 ].

Furthermore, theoretical and the first empirical evidence was provided to show that a set of 13 RM Y-STRs rapidly mutating Y-STRs is able to achieve an order of magnitude higher than male relative differentiation.

The effects of this near-complete male individualization will be of great benefit to forensic applications e.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs are a single-base sequence variation between individuals at a particular point and take place in millions of sites in the human genome which means they could differentiate individuals from one another.

SNPs are able to recover information from degraded DNA samples that show no stochastic phenomena, the sample processing and data analysis can be more automated because a size-based separation is not needed, and it has the ability to predict ethnic origin and certain physical traits with a careful selection of markers [ 6 , 52 ]. Because a single biallelic SNP yields less information than a multi-allelic STR marker, it is necessary to analyze a larger number of SNPs in order to obtain a reasonable power of discrimination to define a unique profile.

The three mandatory components of the SNP arrays are an array containing immobilized allele-specific oligonucleotide ASO probes; fragmented nucleic acid sequences of target, labeled with fluorescent dyes; and a detection system that records and interprets the hybridization signal.

However, these arrays typically require hundreds of nanograms of DNA, which are usually not available from forensic casework samples arising from minute biological stains, and for this reason it is more often used in ancestry studies [ 6 , 29 , 53 , 54 ]. The PCR amplicons were designed to be less than bp, and with this a complete profile could be obtained down to approximately pg of DNA template [ 29 , 55 ].

Both SNPs and INDELs can now be typed using multiplexes based on fragment length analysis on instruments available in all routine forensic laboratories, thus making it possible to extend the range of markers beyond the currently used STRs.

In recent years haplotype systems based on multiple SNPs are being tried as optimal markers for the forensic area due to their discriminating power nearing that of STRs which provides a powerful alternative for the analysis. The microhaplotypes MHs have 2 or more SNPs in a span of less than nucleotides creating a multi-allelic locus , with extremely low recombination rates and discriminating power similar to STRs useful in cases with fragmented DNA and mixture sample analysis [ 57 , 58 , 59 ].

This DNA sequencing is performed in both the forward and reverse directions so that the complementary strands can be compared to one another for quality control purposes.

Occasionally a third portion of the control region, known as HV3, is examined to provide more information regarding a tested sample [ 29 , 64 , 65 ]. Human mitochondrial DNA is considered to be inherited strictly from our mothers and is commonly used in parental linkage. The middle piece of sperm cells contains mtDNA, and this DNA is more resistant than autosomal DNA because in small circular genomes, the double membrane of the mitochondrion and the circular structure without open ends act as protective agents against the degradation processes [ 35 , 66 ].

In recent approach, it has been demonstrated that the mtDNA could be used for the identification of sperm cells in the vaginal tract through a micromanipulation technique [ 68 , 69 ].

The primer design was based on the mtDNA haplotype differences between contributors determined after mtDNA analysis of buccal swabs. This procedure allows the characterization of the male mitotype from a single sperm cell present in a vaginal swab [ 70 ]. There are several next-generation sequencing NGS platforms using different sequencing technologies. All of them perform sequencing of millions of small fragments of DNA in parallel; they use the bioinformatic analyses to piece together these fragments by mapping the individual reads to the human reference genome, providing to deliver accurate data and an insight into unexpected DNA variations [ 70 , 71 , 72 ].

The bases of the method consist in DNA polymerase catalyzing the incorporation of fluorescently labeled deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates into a DNA template strand during sequential cycles of DNA synthesis. During each cycle, at the point of incorporation, the nucleotides are identified by fluorophore excitation. The critical difference is that, instead of sequencing a single DNA fragment, NGS extends this process across millions of fragments in a massively parallel fashion [ 73 , 74 ].

The NGS analysis allows to find differences in the ordering of nucleotides in the DNA in cases where the alleles are of the same size.

NGS reveals substantial sequence variation in addition to repeat length, thereby increasing the discriminatory power of STRs compared to conventional fragment analysis; it also allows for the analysis of large panels of SNPs when severely degraded DNA is involved [ 72 ]. On the other hand, the information obtained from multiple analyses in NGS is not needed in all forensic cases and can take up large portions of the sequencing capacity which will eventually result in fewer samples per sequencing run and a higher cost of the investigation.

In our experience, a reliable quality control platform for the sizing and quantification of the libraries is necessary. NGS has the advantage of high throughput and multiplexing capability and accuracy, which makes it suitable for rapid whole-genome typing of polymorphisms detected by analyzing every base of the genome, thus giving forensic data higher resolution and greater accuracy.

Edaphic, necrobiomic microorganisms at the cadaver-soil interface construct multi-species communities that change when the host body dies and begins to decompose.

Characterization of these dynamic changes has been made possible by metagenomic technologies [ 71 , 72 , 75 ]. It is expected that a high-quality forensic microbial database will soon become a reality and aid in the fast and accurate identification of criminals and biological terrorists.

Even nonhuman species identification is an important component of forensic practice: The species that range from domestic animals common in the urban areas to insects that were present in crime scene [ 29 , 77 ].

Entomological evidence is used to define the PMI, and it is essentially based on the morphological recognition of the insect and an estimation of its insect life cycle stage; however, molecular genotyping methods can also provide an important support for forensic entomological investigations when the identification of species or human genetic material in their digestive tract is required [ 71 , 72 , 75 , 76 ].

Epigenetic approaches based on NGS technology include whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and methylated DNA sequencing. Interestingly, extremely low amounts of starting DNA pg were successfully analyzed through genome-wide amplification of a bisulfite-modified DNA template, followed by quantitative methylation detection using pyrosequencing.

Additionally, another encouraging study performed bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing with micro-volume blood spot samples. This can also be used to predict tissue type and associations with diseases and determine the sex and age of a DNA donor [ 71 , 72 , 75 ]. Furthermore distinguishing monozygotic twins has been a limitation in forensic genetics, since they exhibit identical STR profiles; the high number of readings of a single sequence that is able to reach NGS, allows to see the variations of methylated DNA and mitochondrial SNPs, giving us a way to distinguish them [ 78 , 79 ].

There small size, resistance to degradation, and tissue-specific or highly tissue-divergent expression plays an essential regulative role for many cellular processes. They are suitable for forensic body fluid identification making it possible to conclusively link a DNA profile to a particular body fluid, species identification, different disease states, and PMI [ 71 ].

NGS technology in forensic science will increase the field of applications which contribute to the resolution of criminal cases. The standardization of procedures among laboratories will lead to the acceptance before the court, as well as to the understanding of their uses and limitations see Figure 3. Humans are The difference between each human genome is small. Yet, in analyzing these small differences, we can begin to understand what makes us unique.

The variation between human genomes is not randomly distributed across the globe. Humans are more likely to have descendants with people that live nearby; the closer geographically two individuals or populations are, the more genetically similar to they tend to be. If we were to gather DNA from across the globe, we could connect certain genetic signatures to geographic spaces.

The genetic patterns of human population variation arose from a series of sequential migrations and bottleneck events [ 80 , 81 ]. SNPs change on the order of once every hundred generations, while STR mutation rates are approximately one in a thousand. Ancestry informative markers AIMs possess alleles with large frequency differences between populations that can help distinguish them.

When selecting suitable ancestry informative markers, the degree of divergence between populations and the number of populations that a test seeks to differentiate have both a bearing on the selection process [ 80 , 82 ]. Ancestry inference offers many other applications, including aiding cold case reviews with additional data on linked profiles; achieving more complete identifications of missing persons or disaster victims; assessing atypical combinations of physical characteristics in individuals with admixed parentage; and enhancing genetic studies where forensic sensitivity is necessary, e.

Thus, results from genetic tests attempting to predict ethnic origin or ancestry should always be interpreted with caution and only in the context of other reliable evidence. In countries like the United States where movement of the population is more fluid, greater levels of admixture are expected, and thus genetic testing results would not be as likely to correlate strongly with geographic location.

However, the possibility of admixed ancestry raises a warning in the use of any statistic with any panel of AIMs. Admixed ancestry cannot be estimated accurately unless the ancestral populations are represented among the reference populations [ 83 ]. AIMs are limited, identification of the optimal SNPs could change between group of samples, and some panels are based on very large numbers of SNPs, thereby limiting the ability of others to test different populations.

AIMs in forensic genetic investigations of crime scene can be performed on very small amounts of DNA, less than 1 ng. The strategy for interpretation of the result of AIM investigations can be explorative. The likelihoods of the AIM profiles in various populations may be calculated, and the one with the highest likelihood may be considered the population of origin.

When two populations are identified a priori, the likelihood ratios of the populations are calculated. The likelihood that one population is greater than another does not prove that any of the two populations are relevant to the AIM profile, due to the fact that even though the populations may be exclusive, they are not exhaustive in the sense that covers all possible human populations [ 84 , 85 ].

The recombination of autosomal markers can provide additional information about the admixed nature of an individual. Y-chromosome markers and mitochondrial DNA mtDNA sequence variation have benefits and limitations for ancestry inference that relate to their maternal and paternal lineages [ 82 ]. Forensic phenotyping can provide useful intelligence regarding the ancestry and externally visible characteristics EVCs of the donor of an evidentiary sample.

Currently, SNPs base inference of externally visible characteristics. This may substitute and support eyewitness testimony when descriptions are unavailable or uncertain, in which DNA from the perpetrator is available but no suspect is identified [ 80 , 86 ]. In the case of an unidentified body being found in an advance state of decomposition with no visible physical characteristics, EVCs are expected to provide leads for human identification.

However, work is still being done to identify predictive DNA markers for several other EVCs such as skin color, hair color, body height, male baldness, and hair morphology [ 84 , 87 , 88 , 89 ].

Numerous global studies describe correlations between population geographical distribution and variations in the allele frequencies that are linked to several human phenotypes, including the skin, hair, and iris pigmentation, biological metabolism, biological modification variants, disease susceptibility, and morphology, because these variations are expected to display great population diversity. The investigators and juries may have trouble understanding probabilities from ancestry or phenotyping predictions using DNA results.

If ancestry prediction and forensic phenotyping are pursued, then expectations of individuals using the information will need to be managed [ 89 , 90 ]. Figure 4 shows next-generation sequencing applications and its usefulness in human identification. Next generation sequencing applications. NGS analysis in forensic science provides ample information showing the highest level of precision on individual identity profiling and the lowest on prediction of the habitudes of a person epigenetic biomarkers.

Forensic genetics has become a key test in multiple criminal and civil proceedings for its ability to confirm or eliminate a suspect. In the criminal field, it allows to analyze criminal strategies and identify authors, improving judicial and police management [ 5 , 6 , 12 , 29 , 91 ].

The DNA databases pursue the resolution of criminal cases allowing the automated comparison of DNA profiles from the crime scene, of suspects or convicts and sometimes of the victims. The usefulness of this type of database is indisputable in all the countries in which it exists [ 6 , 14 , 29 , 92 ]. The legislations of each country vary in certain points that affect these issues.

Another important point is to determine which laboratories can generate DNA profiles that are included in the database. The region around the Nile Valley has a long history of succession of different groups, coupled with demographic and migration events, potentially leading to genetic structure among humans in the region. Victoria Keerl. The panels of 9—17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats Y-STRs currently used in forensic genetics have adequate resolution of different paternal lineages in many human populations, but have lower abilities to separate paternal lineages in populations expressing low Y-chromosome diversity.

Moreover, current Y-STR sets usually fail to differentiate between related males who belong to the same paternal lineage and, as a consequence, conclusions cannot be drawn on the individual level as is desirable for forensic interpretations.

In the present study, we demonstrate in unrelated males sampled from 51 worldwide populations HGDP-CEPH that the RM Y-STRs provide substantially higher haplotype diversity and haplotype discrimination capacity with only 3 haplotypes shared between 8 of the worldwide males , than obtained with the largest set of 17 currently used Y-STRs Yfiler in the same samples 33 haplotypes shared between 85 males.

Furthermore, with the present study we provide enhanced data evidence that the RM Y-STR panel is extremely successful in differentiating between closely and distantly related males. Thus, by introducing RM Y-STRs to the forensic genetic community we provide important solutions to several of the current limitations of Y chromosome analysis in forensic genetics.

Maria Eugenia D'Amato. Walter Durka. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Linh Chi. Related Papers.

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There's no place for racial discrimination or sexual violence. We stand firm in our stance. Their claims are widely published by media and cited around the world as reason for turning justice on its head. Like reality-TV, this event encouraged extraordinary extremism to command attention.

This organization claims that 22, women and 8, men are raped in New York City each year, despite the fact that only 1, rapes are reported to police each year. We normally ignore nuts on soapboxes ranting the unimaginable to earn their ten minutes of loquacious fame. But when it is organized by the National Organization of Women, we take the insane seriously. But it still continues to liturgize about rape and violence against women as if Duke never happened.

There is no palpable credibility to these sordid diatribes against men. Certainly, rape does exist. The problem must be addressed accurately and forcefully, not with the atom bomb of radical feminism. In balance, rape is far from pandemic. The first double-murder suggests something more than a domestic disagreement. Seung-Hui Cho was a well-known campus nut. Police ignored what many students and a few professors first concluded: Cho was the murderer.

Had police locked the campus down until Cho was found, thirty murders could have been prevented. There is a deeply-ingrained culture of neo-paternalist hate on our college campuses that is deeply offensive to the reasonable mind.

This inhumanism is not a reflection of credible research or qualitative analysis. These programs are indoctrinaire, not educational. It is time this practice is ended, and our campuses firewalled from it. We know that federal laws such as the Violence Against Women Act, and family and criminal jurisprudence are abused dangerously.

Stephen Baskerville, Ph. All change begins on our college campuses. The onus and responsibility for corrective action rests on the shoulders of Colleges and Universities. They are solely responsible for academic programs and the events sponsored or permitted on their campuses.

Many colleges gladly allow feminist lynch mobs lacking only ropes and hoods to convict the majority of men of rape or violence, and to harass all men into thinking that all other men are abusers or rapists. The rancid transmogrification of diversity to cold hate is simply not acceptable. College men must take the lead. There are many college women [xxv] who know how dangerous feminism is who will join you. You must organize and hold feminists feet to the factual fire.

It is my experience in the world of politics that feminists run when exposed, but only when you show you are not afraid of them. I am willing to work with college men and women who have the wisdom to change the future before they get there, and teach them how to win. College is a bigger investment in your future than you ever imagined.

Your degree will not be worth a nickel when feminists end up destroying half of all marriages, leaving women in poverty, and men criminalized if they cannot support two households.

Apologies are not good enough to end the culture of misandry on college campuses. American universities cannot be resurrected until radical feminism is banned as an organized institution both in academia and as an entitled student institution.

Until that time, parents should wisely send their children to college in countries that actually teach real coursework, where sex is not taught as a war, and where marriage is considered normal. The University of Singapore or the University of Tokyo are two good choices. Some books will display in part. Crawls indexes the content of publishers' websites, scholarly journals, indexes, academic websites, institutional repositories, etc. Does not provide comprehensive coverage of any one field. Enter through the library's website so that you will be linked to the library's licensed resources.

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Directory by country, field of study, cost, length of study, etc. Includes sources of scholarship funding, internships, and other information about study abroad. Collection of movie information.

IMDb tries to catalog every pertinent detail about a movie, from who was in it, to who made it, to trivia about it, to filming locations, and even where one can find reviews and fan sites on the web. An open access digital collection of alternative press newspapers, magazines and journals, drawn from the special collections of participating libraries. These periodicals were produced by feminists, dissident GIs, campus radicals, Native Americans, anti-war activists, Black Power advocates, Hispanics, LGBT activists, the extreme right-wing press and alternative literary magazines during the latter half of the 20th century.

Now part of Legal Source, the Ebsco database providing articles on current issues, studies, thoughts and trends of the legal world with coverage dating back to This collection of over 60 handbooks on information technology security, is included in search results on the Taylor and Francis platform.

Population statistics, immigration trends, socio-economic indicators, birth and death data, hospitalizations, local economic data, and more for New York City. An index to the social sciences that is unique in its broad coverage of international material and incorporates over languages and countries. Discusses history, current trends and future directions.

Each article highlights further reading. Selected articles, news feeds, reports, summaries, books, blogs, FAQs, and proprietary Background Information Summaries that pertain to terrorism and security.

A wide range of content from the leading voices in physics. A searchable collection of the complete runs minus the most recent 2 to 5 years of hundreds of the most significant scholarly journals. To focus on a discipline, select Narrow by Discipline -- e. We provide access to Kanopy titles if needed by faculty for use in class. Faculty may request the library purchase a 12 month long license to view a specific title by sending an email to the media librarian Ellen Sexton esexton at jjay.

Portal to select internet resources relating to Latin American studies organized by subject and country, providing access to a wide variety of full-text resources.

Articles on current issues, studies, thoughts and trends of the legal world with coverage dating back to Content from Index to Legal Periodicals and Books formerly owned by Wilson is now part of this database.

Contains the full text for hundreds of the most important and historically significant LGBT journals, magazines and regional newspapers as well as monographs and books. Articles in the field of library, information science, and education techology.

Content from Library Literature and Information Scrience formerly owned by Wilson is now part of this database. Covers all aspects of the study of language and to various fields of linguistics including descriptive, historical, comparative, theoretical and geographical linguistics.

A curated literature hub for tracking up-to-date scientific information about the novel Coronavirus, from the National Library of Medicine. Provides access to full text biographies, critical analyses, reviews, and bibliographies of work from novelists, poets, essayists, journalists, and other writers.

The database also includes secondary materials like biographies, images, and more. An archival collection of legal materials with historical federal legislative, executive and judicial papers including temp.

For infomation on how to search this database see this brief video click Tutorial. Provided by the Harvard University Press , this online resource provides more than volumes of Latin, Greek, and English texts in a modern interface that allows readers to browse, search, bookmark, and annotate content. Content cannot be downloaded or printed. Note: The library has the print edition of the Loeb Classical Library. Provides the full text of 61, works of literature in business, politics, and economics published from to Includes the full Goldsmiths.

Articles from many popular sources covering nearly all subjects including general reference, business, health, and more. Provides many of the materials indexed in Medline.

Covers medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, pre-clinical sciences, and more. National Library of Medicine's database via PubMed interface of millions of references to articles published in licensed or freely available biomedical journals. Provides access to authoritative consumer health information from the National Library of Medicine and other organizations as well as drug information and an illustrated medical encyclopedia.

A free, preprint server for medical research. Preprints are preliminary reports of work that have not been peer-reviewed. Access to all twenty reference yearbooks; covers commercially available English-language research instruments questionnaires, surveys, diagnostic tests, attitude scales, standardized tests used by educators and psychologists to measure human educational skills, personality, vocational aptitude, psychology, and related areas. Typical MMY test entries include descriptive information, two professional reviews, and reviewer references, written with the goal of encouraging informed test selection.

A portal to the Metropolitan Museum of Art's comprehensive book and online publishing program with close to titles published from to the present.

Articles from journals and other periodicals and current news pertaining to all branches of the military and government. Index to scholarly journal articles on language and literature and critical analysis of films. Coverage from to the present Note: many are not available at John Jay. Data collections relating to criminal justice from federal and state agencies, and grant-funded projects. Provides documentation, and browsing and downloading access to most of the data.

The NBER is a private, non-profit, non-partisan organization dedicated to conducting economic research and to disseminating research findings among academics, public policy makers, and business professionals.

Key focus areas include developing new statistical measurements, estimating quantitative models of economic behavior, and analyzing the effects of public policies. Library catalog of the National Fire Academy. Indexes journal articles, books, and reports in fire science and emergency management.

Items not owned by John Jay may be available via Interlibrary Loan. The complete archive from to of the award-winning magazine, which features in-depth coverage of cultures, nature, science, technology, and the environment; and spectacular photographic essays.

Conducts and supports alcohol-related research in a wide range of scientific areas. Provides detailed information about all known exonerations of innocent criminal defendants in the United States from to the present. Includes statistical and interactive displays that allow you to sort the data based on different issues including by DNA and Non-DNA exonerations, type of crime, race and contributing factors.

A comprehensive collection of classical music available online, comprising the complete Naxos, Marco Polo and Dacapo catalogues, which include Classical, Jazz, World, Folk and Chinese music. A growing collection of searchable biomedical books hosted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, which advances science and health by providing access to biomedical and genomic information. Searches and often provides the full text of federal, state, local, and foundation reports, as well as abstracts of journal articles and other websites.

NDLTD is an international organization dedicated to promoting the adoption, creation, use, dissemination and preservation of electronic theses and dissertations; full-text is free for all; excellent source for international dissertations. Interactive crime map created by the NYPD showing date and location for the seven major NYS penal law felonies murder, rape, robbery, felonious assault, burglary, grand larceny and grand larceny motor vehicle.

Data available for current and previous calendar year and by month within each period. See subject guide on Finding Legal Informatio n for more information. Holders of New York Public Library cards have access to s of electronic databases, many of which are accessible wherever you have an Internet connection.

Any person who lives, works, attends school or pays property taxes in New York State is eligible to receive a New York Public Library card free of charge. You can apply for a NYPL card online. Part of National Newpaper Core database. All members of the John Jay Community with a valid John Jay email address may sign up for complimentary access to the New York Times digital edition nytimes.

Claim or renew your academic pass and see more details. Full text of articles and page images of the New York Times from to Nexis Uni features more than 15, news, business and legal sources formerly found through the LexisNexisAcademic platform - including federal and state laws and cases, constitutions, municipal codes and law review articles.

The interface is designed to offer quick discovery across all content types. Register for a personal NexisUni id to use personalization features such as Alerts, saved searches and a collaborative workspace with shared folders and annotated documents. An eclectic collection of digital collections of primary source materials mostly from British and American libraries.

NESRI indexes census records, slave trade transactions, cemetery records, birth certifications, manumissions, ship inventories, newspaper accounts, private narratives, legal documents and many other sources.

The index contains over 35, records and it is expected to grow as John Jay College professors and students locate and assemble data from additional sources. Online gallery with more than , images—the largest collection of historical images of New York City in the world. The Online Gallery provides free and open research access to items digitized from the Municipal Archives' collections, including photographs, maps, motion pictures and audio recordings.

Interactive visualization tools, downloadable datasets and rigorous research on New Yorkers' health provided by the New York City Health Department. New materials are added every day, featuring prints, photographs, maps, manuscripts, streaming video, and more.

The NYS Historic Newspapers project provides free online access to a wide range of newspapers chosen to reflect New York's unique history.

Biennial publication of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Describes what workers do, working conditions, training and education needed, earnings and job prospects in a wide variety of occupations. Provides author, title, and subject access to hundreds of thousands of non-copyrighted online books freely available on the Web.

Open Library, a book digitization project of the Internet Archive, provides access to millions of books. Books in the public domain can be downloaded for free by anyone. Books that are still subject to copyright can be borrowed via controlled digital lending.

Access viewpoint articles, topic overviews, statistics, primary documents, links to websites, full-text magazine and newspaper articles, and multimedia on social issues from NOVELny. The worldwide standard source for English word definitions, word pronunciation, word history and usage.

Over reference books from Oxford University Press, including language dictionaries, and reference works in art, science, classics, business, history, law, literature, medicine, geography, performing arts, philosophy, and social science.

In-depth, peer-reviewed long-form articles on foundational and cutting-edge topics in Criminology and Criminal Justice.

The Public Affairs Information Service was established to chronicle the world's public affairs, public and social policies, international relations, and world politics.

The database contains and index to journal articles, government documents, grey literature and other materials from forward. Index to books and journals with some links to full text. PhilPapers is a directory of online philosophy articles and books by academic philosophers and serves as the largest open access archive in philosophy.

Sponsored by the U. Comprehensive source of global funding opportunities. Users must set up individual accounts using their CUNY email. Well known open access publisher, founded as a non-profit in to transform research communication by publishing journals with rigorous reporting and peer review.

Photographs, fine and popular prints and drawings, posters, and architectural and engineering drawings from the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. Highly specialized collection of electronic information for professional educators, professional librarians and education researchers.

Online access to the Protection of Assets Manual and Bulletin, the basic manual for security personnel. Thousands of articles from journals published by the APA and allied organizations.

It consists of technical and annual reports, newsletters, magazines, newspapers, consumer brochures and more. Psychological Experiments Online is a multimedia collection that pairs audio and video recordings of experiments in psychology with thousands of pages of primary-source documents. It includes notes from experiment participants, journal articles, books, field notes, and final reports in topics from obedience to authority and conformity to operant.

The collection contains over 70 streaming videos totaling more than 45 hours of viewing time. Videos include lectures, presentations, documentaries, experiment footage and interviews.

The most comprehensive index and access to materials in psychology articles and books. Information on public administration and related areas such as organizational structures, public service personnel, economic issues, taxation, society issues, theory and research in the field. A collection of free law materials including case law, statutes, regulations, court rules, and federal and state constitutions. Some are free or available via a John Jay subscription.

Some are for sale. Contemporary and archival concerts, documentaries, interviews with musicians. One year trial until March Provides access to general-interest periodicals published in the U. A web-based bibliographic citation management service that is useful for tracking citations, generating bibliographies and citing sources in papers. More about RefWorks. Hundreds of ebooks and subject encyclopedias, including major titles in criminal justice, research methods, psychology, and social issues from Sage and CQ Press.

I ncludes over tutorials, interviews, video case studies, and mini-documentaries covering the entire research process.

You can search videos by method; by discipline criminology, economics, sociology, etc. Prestigious weekly from the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Includes a magazine section and peer reviewed articles. Full text magazines, academic journals, news articles, experiments, images, videos, audio files and links to vetted websites. Abstract and citation database to peer-reviewed journal titles from international publishers in science, technology, social science and medicine.

Results can be refined by author affiliation, funding source, and more. Coverage from the 's to the present. Provides access to bibliographic information and pricing for popular serials. Contains nearly , U. Available only through LexisNexis Academic. Click on 'Search by content type' on the upper right, then find Shepherd's Citations under 'Legal. Includes collections on the transatlantic slave trade, the global movement for the abolition of slavery, the legal, personal, and economic aspects of the slavery system, and the dynamics of emancipation in the U.

Brings together all known legal materials on slavery in the United States and the English-speaking world. This includes every statute passed by every colony and state on slavery, every federal statute dealing with slavery, and all reported state and federal cases on slavery. Much of the non-legal material in this collection is based on the holdings of the Buffalo Public Library.

Its rare book collection contains hundreds of nineteenth century pamphlets and books on slavery. SocArXiv is a free and publicly accessible platform for social scientists to upload working papers, pre-prints, published papers, data, and code. Displays interactive maps of U.

Census data going back to , U. Provides accesses to journals in anthropology, criminology, economics, law, geography, policy studies, psychology, sociology, social work, and urban studies from to the present and indexes material from to Provides abstracts, indexing and full text coverage of journal articles, books, book chapters, dissertations, working papers and more.

Accesses journal articles, book reviews, dissertations, and current research focused on social work, human services, and related areas, including social welfare, social policy, and community development. Contains core coverage journals dating back to , and some priority coverage journals. Also includes full text for many books, monographs, and conference papers.

Scholarly articles, books, and dissertations in sociology and subdisciplines. Statistics from the current Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics with ongoing updates and the archive back to The print version is available at the Reference Desk. Hundreds of scholarly journals and Ebooks published by Springer or formerly by Palgrave , as well as online Reference books--not all indexed Ebooks are available fulltext.

Very large, well established repository of social science and other academic papers. It was founded in as an open repository, but bought in by a for-profit publisher, Elsevier. The vast majority of the papers hosted on the site are free to download. Entries are maintained and kept up to date by experts in the field. Access is unlimited and free to everyone. These freely available websites aggregate state legislative information, providing a more uniform and user-friendly search experience and the ability to compare legislative activities across the states.

Comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States. This collection of reference books in statistics, is included in search results on the Taylor and Francis platform. Provides legal scholars with extensive data, like background issues, reasons for acceptance, chronology, outcome impacts, and judge's opinions, for Supreme Court Cases since Funded by the National Science Foundation.

Feature films requested by faculty for curriculum support. Viewable by everyone with a John Jay email address but please note our licenses permit individual or course use only. Most of the films are from the big Hollywood studios, or overseas equivalent. Provides information on undergraduate and graduate programs and interactive online practice tests for entrance exams, certifications, and licensing tests, including LSAT, GRE, and SAT, as well as civil service exams.

Includes Peterson's Guides. Data about federal enforcement activities -- criminal, civil, and administrative -- including detailed information about federal staffing, federal enforcement agencies, and income and demographic statistics.

Index to articles in journals and books on transportation from Northwestern University's Transportation Library. Provides access to , bibliographic records covering transportation research published in books, journal articles, technical reports and other media.

Contextual information on hundreds of the most significant people, events and topics in U. Includes full text magazines, academic journals, news articles, primary source documents, images, videos, audio files and links to vetted websites. A source of detailed information on more than , periodicals also called serials of all types.

A searchable collection of over , primary source documents relating to African American history and culture digitized by over 1, libraries libraries and archives across the country. The FBI's compendium of crime statistics. It includes volumes from to the present. Articles and reports as well as book abstracts about crime and other urban problems, possible solutions, studies of police departments, social welfare agencies, and more.

Short but authoritative introductions to topics written by authors who are experts in their field. These short introductions cover a range of subjects in the arts and humanities, law, medicine and health, science and mathematics and the social sciences. Information on victims rights and protections including Constitutional provisions, statutes, court rules, administrative code provisions, case summaries, and attorney general opinions.

Includes overviews of the justice system and a glossary. Provides summary data on political behavior such as voter turnout, election results, public opinion, media trends, campaign financing and more.

Some charts provide data from the s, but most focus on the s to Data can be downloaded. Subscription to database expired June 30,

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