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S chand biology class 10 life processes pdf download obs software download mac

S chand biology class 10 life processes pdf download

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In the large intestine, water is removed and bacteria break down some indigestible materials, producing important compounds such as vitamin K. The mode of nutrition in which the digestion of food is allowed only after the ingestion of food is called the holozoic mode of nutrition. Human beings are also the example of holozoic mode of nutrition. The mode of nutrition in which organisms make their own food by the process of photosynthesis.

In the human digestive system, the enzymes pepsin and trypsin are secreted respectively by. Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller amino acids. In the small intestine, trypsin breaks down proteins, continuing the process of digestion that began in the stomach. When carrying the starch test on a leaf, why is it important to boil the leaf in an alcohol? On boiling the leaf in alcohol, the leaf becomes decolorized, and when it is treated with iodine, the blue-black color clearly indicates the presence of starch.

To avoid the interference of green color, it is treated with alcohol. Bile is a fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder and passes through the common bile duct where it helps in the digestion of fat. Chemical digestion of protein begins in the stomach and ends in the small intestine. The body recycles amino acids to make more proteins. The inner lining of the stomach is protected by one of the following from the harmful effect of hydrochloric acid.

That is. The mucus in gastric juice helps protect the stomach wall from the corrosive effect of hydrochloric acid. The small intestine receives the bile from the liver which helps in the breakdown of fats.

Bile juice is produced in the liver and stored in gall bladder. Which of the following component of our food is digested by an enzyme which is present in saliva as well as in pancreatic juice? Carbohydrates that starch and is digested by salivary amylase present in saliva are converted into maltose and it also gets digested by pancreatic juices in the pancreas. If the saliva is lacking in salivary amylase, then which of the following processes taking place in the buccal cavity will be affected?

In case, saliva is lacking, it will affect the breakdown of starch. The protein digestion begins in the stomach by the enzyme pepsin and completes in the small intestine by enzyme trypsin. Which of the following are correct functions of two components of pancreatic juice trypsin and lipase?

Pancreatic juice contains trypsin acts on proteins. Fats are not soluble in water and hence lipids act on fats.

The oxygen during photosynthesis comes from split water molecules. During photosynthesis, the plant absorbs water and carbon dioxide. After the absorption, the water molecules are disassembled and converted into sugar and oxygen. Water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen are among the few simple molecules that can cross the cell membrane by diffusion. Hence, the Movement of molecules takes place in a cell.

Autotrophs comprise of green plants that photosynthesize their own food and store it in the form of starch. Carbon dioxide is reduced and fixed in the form of carbohydrates. While oxygen is released from the water molecules. The guard cells swell when water flows into them, causing the stomatal pores to open. Similarly the pore closes if the guard cells shrink or lose water in them. Nitrate is the form of nitrogen most used by plants for growth and development.

Some bacteria in the soil can turn ammonia into nitrites. Salivary amylase, present in saliva, is the first digestive enzyme that gets mixed with food in the mouth. The salivary amylase hydrolyzes starch into maltose. Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot prepare their own food and depend on other organisms for their nutrition.

In which of the following groups of organisms food material is broken down outside the body and then absorbed. These organisms have a saprophytic mode of nutrition. They break down complex organic substances by secreting digestive enzymes outside their body and absorb simple molecules as nutrients. Which of the following is the correct sequence of parts as they occur in the human alimentary canal? The food is entered through the mouth and then it reaches the stomach through food pipe where the food is digested.

Then it moves to the small intestine where most of the nutrients are absorbed and reaches the large intestine.

The large intestine absorbs all the water contents and the undigested food is moved to the rectum. When a person eats sugary food, then organisms A present in his mouth act on sugar to produce a substance B. The substance B first dissolves the calcium salts from the top part C of the tooth and then from its middle part D forming holes E. These holes ultimately act on the part F in the lower part of the tooth which contains nerves and blood cells.

Substance B irritates the nerve endings inside the tooth causing toothache. If the teeth are not cleaned regularly, they become covered with a sticky yellowish layer W of food particles and bacteria.

Since layer W covers the teeth, the alkaline liquid X secreted by glands Y inside the mouth cannot reach the teeth surface to neutralize the acid formed by the action of organisms Z on sugary food, and hence tooth decay sets in.

When a person puts food in his mouth, then teeth cut it into small pieces, chew and grind it. The glands A in the mouth secrete a substance B which is mixed with the food by the tongue. Substance B contains an enzyme C which starts the digestion of food in the mouth. The slightly digested food from the mouth goes down a tube D. The special type of movements E in the walls of tube D pushes the food into the stomach for further digestion. The stomach wall secretes gastric juice containing three substance F, G and H.

One of the functions of F is to kill bacteria which may enter the stomach with food. The substance G protects the inside layer of the stomach from the damaging effect of substance F whereas substance H is an enzyme for digestion. The partially digested food then enters into the small intestine for further digestion. The partially digested food coming from the stomach of a person enters a long and narrow organ A in his body.

The organ A receives the secretion of two glands: liver and pancreas. The liver secretes a greenish-yellow liquid B which is normally stored in the organ C. Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which contains three digestive enzymes D, E and F. The intestinal juice completes the process of digestion of food. The inner wall of organ A has millions of tiny finger-like projections G which help in the rapid absorption of digested food into the bloodstream.

The undigested part of food then passes into wider tube H which absorbs most of the water from undigested food. The last part of tube H called I stores this undigested food or waste for some time. The undigested food is then passed out through opening J as feces in the process known as K.

A unicellular animal P having no fixed shape ingests a food particle by forming temporary finger-like projections Q. The food particle is engulfed with a little surrounding water to form a temporary stomach R inside it.

The chemicals S from surrounding cytoplasm enter into R and break down food into small and soluble molecules by chemical reactions. The digested food is absorbed directly into the cytoplasm by the process T.

The undigested food is thrown out of the body by the rupture of a cell organelle U in a process called V. There are four organisms A, B, C and D. The organism A eats only the flesh of other animals as food. The organism B can eat grains, fruits, and vegetables as well as meat and fish. The organism C can make the food itself from simple inorganic substances present in the environment by utilizing sunlight energy.

On the other hand, organism D eats only plants and their products as food. The organisms A, B and C can obtain their food in three different ways. Organism A derives its food from the body of another living organism which is called its D, without killing it. The organism B takes in the solid food by the process of ingestion, digests a part of this food and throws out undigested food in the process called E.

The organism C obtains its food from dead and decaying plants. An organism A which cannot move from one place to another, makes a simple food B from the substances C and D available in the environment. This food is made in the presence of a green-colored substance E present in organs F in the presence of light energy in a process called G. Some of the simple food B also gets converted into a complex food H for storage purposes.

Food H gives a blue-black color with a dilute iodine solution. X is a wild animal which eats only the flesh of other animals whereas Y is a domestic animal that feeds mainly on green grass. No, all cells do not use oxygen to produce energy. Cells can also produce energy by anaerobic respiration. It is a process which takes place in the absence of oxygen gas. In this process, the energy is obtained by the breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen. Name one substance that is produced in anaerobic respiration by an organism but not in aerobic respiration.

Ethanol is produced as the result of the breakdown of pyruvate during anaerobic respiration, not in aerobic respiration. Fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration in which alcohol is formed by the breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen. It usually done by the yeast. In alcoholic fermentation, pyruvic acid is converted into ethanol with the liberation of carbon dioxide.

Yeast can live without oxygen. An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. In aerobic respiration, more energy is released because there is a complete breakdown of food. In this process glucose breaks down in the presence of a sufficient amount of oxygen and hence more energy is released.

Name the substance whose build up in the muscles during vigorous physical exercise may cause cramps. Lactic acid, which is formed in muscles during vigorous physical exercise, may cause cramps. When a person runs fast, lactic acid builds up in the muscles, causing painful cramps. The extra oxygen taken while breathing reacts with the lactic acid in the muscles, breaking it down to make carbon dioxide and water. As the lactic acid breaks down the cramps will begin to disappear.

Root hair is involved in the exchange of respiratory gases as they are in direct contact with the air present in the soil. These contain pore in the outer layer of the roots that helps in exchanging the gases. Name the process by which plant parts like roots, stems, and leaves get oxygen required for respiration. All the plant parts like roots, stems and leaves get oxygen by passive diffusion, which is required for respiration.

Diffusion occurs in plant cells. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the air through tiny pores in plant leaves called stomata. Oxygen produced by photosynthesis diffuses from the plant through the stomata into the atmosphere. Name the pores in a leaf through which respiratory exchange of gases takes place.

Stomata are the pores present on the surface of the leaves through which exchange of gases takes place. Stomata also helps in the transpiration, in which the loss of water from the surface of leaves in the form of water vapor. Name the areas in a woody stem through which the respiratory exchange of gases takes place.

The outer covering of the woody stems, which is known as the bark, has lenticels through which respiratory exchange of gases takes place.

Lenticels are raised surface on the bark made up of porous tissues composed of cells with large intercellular spaces. What is the name of the extensions of the epidermal cells of a root which help in respiration?

Root hair is the extension of the epidermal cells of a root, which help in respiration. Root hairs act like a sponge underground. Out of photosynthesis and respiration in plants, which process occurs: a all the time? Respiration is the process through which plants breathe and it happens all the time. In fish, gills are the organs of breathing. Aquatic animals may breathe air or extract oxygen that dissolved in water through specialized organs called gills, or directly through the skin.

Frog absorb oxygen through their moist skin. These come under the class of amphibians. Almost all amphibians have thin, moist skin that helps them breathe. Aquatic animals like sharks and tadpoles breathe through gills. The trachea divides into two tubes at its lower end. What is the name of these tubes?

The trachea divides into two tubes at its lower end, which are known as bronchi. These are the airways that lead from the trachea into the lungs, and then branch into smaller bronchioles. Blood absorbs the oxygen in the small organelles also known as Alveoli singular name is Alveolus. These are present in the lungs. Hemoglobin is the red pigment that is present in red blood cells. The main purpose of hemoglobin is to transport oxygen to all parts of the body from lungs. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged in the lungs.

Lungs purifies the inhaled air and transport to all parts of body. The impure air containing carbon dioxide is exhaled. Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli of the lungs. These are tiny, balloon-shaped air sacs sit at the very end of the respiratory tract and are arranged in clusters throughout the lungs.

What is the name of tiny air-sacs at the end of smallest bronchioles in the lungs? Alveoli are the tiny air sacs at the end of smallest bronchioles in the lungs. Wind-pipe is also known as a trachea. The trachea, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs which allows the passage of air.

The two lungs are attached to the two bronchi. The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest. These are the vital organs of the respiratory system. In the lungs: a What substance is taken into the body? The oxygen is transported to all parts of the body through blood. The impure blood containing carbon dioxide is brought back to the lungs and then exhaled.

State whether the following statements are true or false: a During respiration, the plants take CO 2 and release O 2. The exchange of gases take place the stomatal pores present on leaves of the plant. Anaerobic respiration also produces energy and uses glucose, but it produces less energy and does not require oxygen. Explain why, a land plant may die if its roots remain waterlogged for a long time.

The roots of plant cannot respire if they remain waterlogged for a long time. The water molecules block the stomatal pores present on the leaves and makes the plant difficult to respire, which leads to death of the plant.

What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use anaerobic mode of respiration. The organisms that use anaerobic mode of respiration include some bacteria and microorganisms such as yeast. What type of respiration takes place in human muscles during vigorous physical exercise? Give the reason for your answer. Anaerobic respiration takes place in human muscles during vigorous physical exercise.

During exercise our body needs more energy and aerobic respiration is not sufficient. Hence muscles start anaerobic respiration to meet the energy needs. Example: Yeast. Example: Humans. Example: Muscles in human beings.

The physical mechanism in which an organism takes up oxygen from the air and gives out carbon dioxide is called breathing. What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms? Give one example of each. The different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms are aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Aerobic respiration: The respiration which take place in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration.

Anaerobic respiration: The respiration which take place in the absence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration. Example Bacteria. Explain why, when air is taken in and let out during breathing, the lungs always contain a residual volume of air. The lungs always contain a residual volume of air so that there is a sufficient amount of oxygen present for oxygen to be absorbed into the blood and carbon dioxide to be released from the blood.

The residual volume also functions to keep the alveoli open even after maximum respiration. Inhalation of carbon monoxide is dangerous because Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin and forms carboxyhemoglobin. This carboxyhemoglobin replaces oxygen. Then blood faces the shortage of oxygen.

Due to the lack of oxygen, the person will face difficulty in breathing. The person may also die due to this lack of oxygen. So it is dangerous to inhale air containing carbon monoxide. Describe the process of respiration in Amoeba. State whether it is anaerobic respiration or aerobic respiration. Amoeba depends on diffusion of gases for breathing.

The diffusion of gases takes place through the thin cell membrane of amoeba. Amoeba lives in water. The dissolved oxygen from water diffuses into the body of amoeba through its cell membrane. The oxygen spreads quickly into the whole body and is used for respiration inside the amoeba cell. The process of respiration produces carbon dioxide which diffuses out through its cell membrane into the surrounding water. Aerobic respiration takes place in amoeba.

State the three common features of all the respiratory organs like skin, gills and lungs. Aquatic animals like fish have specialised organ for breathing. The organ is gills. The exchange of gases takes place here. The oxygen dissolved in water is used by the fish for breathing. The fish, first takes the water in mouth and then sends it to gills.

The gills extract the dissolved oxygen and the remaining water is transported out through the slits present in the gills. The blood transports the absorbed oxygen to all parts of the body. The blood also brings the carbon dioxide from the other body parts and is expelled through gills to the water present in the surrounding.

Describe the process of respiration in the following parts of a plant: a Root b Stem c Leaves. The oxygen present in between the soil particles is absorbed by these root hair by diffusion. The carbon dioxide produced in the cells move out through these root hair by the same process of diffusion.

The pores present on the stem helps in the exchange of gases and carbon dioxide present in the air diffuses out through the same pores. Lenticels are present in the woody stems for the exchange of gases. The exchange of gases occurs through these pores. The oxygen is transported to other cells of the plant by diffusion and in the same carbon dioxide is removed from the cells.

In this way respiration takes place in leaves. Example: Fish, Shark, Octopus etc. The animals which live on land and respire through lungs are called terrestrial animals. Example: Cow, Goat, Tiger etc. Water contains two hydrogen and one oxygen molecule. This dissolved oxygen is utilized by the aquatic animals for breathing. The oxygen for terrestrial animals is obtained from the air present in the surrounding atmosphere. The atmosphere contains necessary oxygen for all the terrestrial plants and animals.

Fishes die when taken out of water because the respiratory organ that is gills is specialized in such a way that, it can only extract dissolved oxygen from the water and provide it to fish. The gills are not specialised to take oxygen from the air in the surrounding atmosphere. Hence, due to lack of oxygen fishes die when taken out of water. Why is the rate of breathing in aquatic organisms much faster than in terrestrial organisms?

The rate of breathing in aquatic organisms much faster than in terrestrial organisms because aquatic animals breathe from the oxygen dissolved in water.

The dissolved oxygen is less as compared to the amount of oxygen present in the atmosphere. Hence, the rate of breathing in aquatic organisms much faster than in terrestrial organisms.

Name the energy currency in the living organisms. When and where is it produced? The energy currency in living organisms is adenosine triphosphate ATP.

In aerobic respiration process it is produced in cytoplasm and in anaerobic respiration process it is produced in mitochondria of the cell. Plants have low energy needs as compared to animals.

Plants show only tropic movements and movements are at the cellular level. But, in case of animals it is entirely different. Animals move from one place to another in search of food, prey, water, shelter, etc. The energy requirement is more in animals.

Hence plants have low energy needs as compared to animals. It would definitely benefit deep-sea divers if humans also had gills. Then the divers would not have carried the oxygen cylinders along with them as they would breathe with the help of dissolved oxygen in water. The divers need have taken much efforts of carrying the cylinders. The respiration system must help in removing the carbon dioxide from the body during exhalation and oxygen must be absorbed from the inhaled air.

Respiratory system must also help in the breakdown of food and supply to all parts of the body. Nasal passage contains mucus and hair in it. The hair prevents the dust particles entering the respiratory tract and mucus also plays in preventing the fine particles of dust from entering into the track.

The oxygenated air diffuses from the alveoli into the blood. When the blood is circulated in different parts of the body, the oxygen is carried to all cells and tissues through this blood. This oxygen is combined with the digested food and releases energy in the cell. Carbon dioxide which is produced as a waste product during respiration is diffused into the blood. Blood brings back the carbon dioxide into alveoli and then it is exhaled through nostrils passing through trachea.

There are millions of alveoli in the lungs. The presence of millions of alveoli in the lungs provide a very large area for the exchange of gases. The availability of large surface area maximizes the exchange of gases. Carbon dioxide produced during respiration is used for the process of photosynthesis.

Some amount of carbon dioxide is also taken from the air. So during day time, oxygen diffuses out and carbon dioxide diffuses in. Thus, oxygen from the air diffuses into the leaves to carry out respiration. And carbon dioxide produced by respiration diffuses out into the air. So, at night, oxygen diffuses in and carbon dioxide diffuses out. During respiration oxygen breaks down glucose and hence more amount of carbon dioxide is released. Justify the statements.

Most living things need oxygen to obtain energy from food. This oxygen reacts with the food molecules present in the body cells and burns them slowly to release energy. This energy is stored as ATP molecules in the cells. The process of releasing energy from food is called respiration. The end products may be ethanol and carbon dioxide as in yeast cells or lactic acid as in muscle cells. Due to a large number of cells and the huge size of the body the oxygen cannot diffuse quickly into all cells of the body.

In unicellular organisms, the size of the organism is small and the cell present is also singular. Hence, diffusion is insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of large multicellular organisms like humans. Aquatic animals have only dissolved oxygen in water which is in minimal amount. Hence, terrestrial animal has over an aquatic animal with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration. Which of the following is not produced during anaerobic respiration in unicellular fungus?

Hence water molecule is not released. One of the following organisms can live without oxygen of air. This organism is: a Amoeba b Yak c Yeast d Leech. During respiration, the exchange of gases takes place in: a bronchi b alveoli c bronchioles d trachea. This organism is: a Electric eel b Leech c Earthworm d Amoeba. There are two pathways through which anaerobic respiration occurs.

In micro-organisms such as yeast, and in muscles during heavy physical exercise. Carbon dioxide is not released during process. Which of the following increases in muscle cells when they are lacking in oxygen? Internal respiration may be defined as: a breathing in and releasing of oxygen in the tissue b the oxidation of food substances to release energy c the building up synthesis of complex substances d getting rid of carbon dioxide that would accumulate in the tissues.

When air is blown from mouth into a test-tube containing lime water, the lime water turns milky due to the presence of: a oxygen b carbon dioxide c nitrogen d water vapor.

Which of the following is the correct sequence of air passage during inhalation? Lack of oxygen in muscles often leads to cramps in the legs of sprinters. This is due to the conversion of pyruvate to: a ethanol b carbon dioxide c acetic acid d lactic acid. Accumulation of lactic acid leads to cramps in the legs of sprinters.

During the deficiency of oxygen in tissues of human beings, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid in: a cytoplasm b chloroplast c mitochondria d Golgi body. Which of the following statements are correct? Which of the following statements are true about respiration?

These are connected to tiny blood capillaries. They also increase the surface area of gases in order to ease the process of the exchange of gases. Which of the following is known as the energy currency of the cells in biology? Hence, it is known as currency of cells in biology. The two organisms which breath only through their moist skin are: a fish and frog b frog and earthworm c leech and earthworm d fish and earthworm. Other organisms given here breathe through lungs and skin.

One of the following animals does not use tracheae as the respiratory organs. This animal is:. Insects breathe through tracheae. The photosynthesis in a plant is not taking place during the day time if the plant is releasing: a water vapor b oxygen c carbon dioxide d all the above. So carbon dioxide is not released during day time. The breathing and respiration in woody stem of a plant takes place through: a root hair b lenticels c closed stomata d open stomata.

One of the following organisms does not depend on the simple diffusion of gases for breathing and respiration. This organism is: a Amoeba b Prawn c Planaria d Bryophyllum. During marathon, we sometimes get painful contractions of leg muscles due to the accumulation of one of the following in leg muscles. This is: a carbon dioxide b alcohol c lactose d lactic acid. In cockroaches, air enters the body through: a lungs b gills c spiracles d skin.

Air enters the body through these pores. Which of the following is most likely to have a much higher breathing rate? Hence fish has higher breathing rate than other organisms. During the respiration of an organism A, 1 molecule of glucose produces 2 ATP molecules whereas in the respiration of another organism B, 1 molecule of glucose produces 38 ATP molecules.

In this process, glucose breaks down to form alcohol and carbon dioxide. A, B and C are three living organisms. The organism A is a unicellular fungus that can live without air. It is used in the commercial production of an organic compound P from molasses.

The organism B is a unicellular animal which lives in water and feeds and moves by using pseudopodia. It breathes through an organelle Q. The organism C is a tiny animal that acts as a carrier of malarial parasite. It breathes and respires through a kind of tiny holes R and air-tubes S in its body. The animal P always lives in water and has gills for breathing. The animal Q can stay in the water as well as on land and can breathe both, through moist skin and lungs. The animal R lives in soil and breathes only through its skin.

The animal S lives on land and breathes through spiracles and tracheae. And animal T lives in water and breathes through its cell membrane. Some sugar solution is taken in a test-tube and a little of substance X in powder form is added to it. The mouth of test-tube is closed with a cork and allowed to stand for some time. On opening the cork, a characteristic smell of substance Y is obtained and a gas Z is also observed to be formed.

The gas Z extinguishes a burning matchstick. It occurs d Equation ii e Equation i f Aerobic respiration, produces maximum amount of energy. When a person breathes in air, the air enters into his body through an organ A having two holes B in it. The air then passes through pharynx and larynx and enters into a tube C.

The tube C divides into two smaller tubes D at its lower end. The two smaller tubes are attached to two respiratory organs E. Each smaller tube divides inside the organs E to form a large number of still smaller tubes called F.

The smallest tubes F have air-sacs G at their ends in which gaseous exchange takes place in the body of the person. An organism X having breathing organs A lives on land. When organism X goes under water, it cannot survive for a long time unless carrying an oxygen cylinder. On the other hand, the organism Y having breathing organs B always lives in water and if taken out of water, it dies after a short while. A third organism Z having breathing organs C and D which lives on the banks of ponds, lakes and rivers can survive on land as well as in water equally well.

Name the breathing organs A. Name the breathing organs B. Name the breathing organs C and D. Very Short Answer Questions 1.

What is the name of tissues which transport: a food in a plant? Veins and arteries carry blood. Which of these carry blood: a away from the heart? The blood absorbs oxygen in the lungs. Lungs are a vital part of the respiratory system.

Alveoli helps blood to absorb oxygen in the lungs. The valves present in the right and the left atrium prevent the blood from flowing backward into the atria. The tricuspid valve mainly helps in doing this process. The dirty blood is filtered by the kidneys in our body. Kidneys help in regulating and filtering minerals from blood. Dialysis is the procedure used in the working of artificial kidney. The main purpose of dialysis is to replace impaired renal function.

When kidneys are damaged, they are no longer able to remove wastes and excess fluid from your bloodstream efficiently, dialysis does this. Blood includes the other four terms. Out of xylem and phloem, which one carries materials: a upwards as well as downwards?

Name two liquids which help in the transport of substances in the human body. Name the conducting tissue of plants which is made of sieve tubes along with companion cells. The conducting tissue of plants that is made of the sieve tubes along with the companion cells is Phloem. Name the conducting tissue in plants which is made of a living cells, and b dead cells.

State the term used for the transport of food from leaves to other parts of plant. Which process in a plant is accomplished by utilizing energy from ATP : transport of water and minerals or transport of food?

ATP is utilized during the loading of food made in the leaves into the sieve tubes of phloem tissue. Thus, it is used in the transport of food. The two types of transport system in human beings are blood circulatory system and lymphatic system.

Name a waste gas released by the plants a only during the day time, and b only during the night time. Name one animal having single circulation of blood and another having double circulation. State whether the following statements are true or false: a Some organisms store wastes in body parts.

Name the two parts of a plant through which its gaseous waste products are released into the air. What happens to the glucose which enters the nephron tubule along with the filtrate? Name the two waste products of the human body which are produced in the body cells. Carbon dioxide and urea are the waste products of human body which are produced in the body cells. Glomerulus filters the blood passing through kidney. It is the first stage of filtering process in kidneys.

What is xylem tissue? Name the two kinds of cells in xylem tissue. State whether these cells are living or dead. Xylem is a conducting tissue in plants, which helps in the translocation of water and minerals. These are absorbed from the soil by the roots of the plants, to transport to various parts of the plant such as stems, leaves and flowers.

The two kinds of cells in xylem tissue are xylem vessels and tracheids. These cells are dead cells. What is phloem tissue? Phloem contains two types of cells joined side by side. Name these two types of cells.

Phloem is a conducting tissue in plants, which helps in the translocation of the food prepared in the leaves to all the other parts of the plant. Sieve tubes and companion cells are components of Phloem tissue.

These cells are living cells. Excretion is the process of removal of waste products from the body. Nephrons are the excretory unit in kidney. They also help in maintaining the water balance in the body. These are removed from the blood in the form of urine. Why do some people need to use a dialysis machine? What does the machine do? Kidneys help in the removal of major waste products like ammonia and urea.

These are excreted regularly from our body with the help of kidneys. In the case of kidney failure, these wastes are not excreted and can cause harmful effects to the body.

Then the blood is filtered externally by the process of dialysis. In this process the blood is purified externally. The impure blood is taken out of the body. Then in the dialysis machine it is purified and the pureblood is sent back to the body. This process is done periodically, depending on the condition of the patient. What is the liquid part of the blood called? What is the function of platelets in the blood?

Name them. A dialysis machine contains long tubes coiled in a tank containing dialyzing solution: i Of what substance are the tubes made? The concentration of these components are similar to the components present in the blood. They exchange oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and salts between the blood and the surrounding tissues. State two major functions of lymph. Functions of lymph:. With which human organ systems or human systems are the following associated?

What are their normal values? Systolic pressure: The pressure at which the blood leaves the heart through the aorta, during contraction phase. Diastolic pressure: The minimum pressure in the arteries during the relaxation phase of the heart. The normal value of systolic pressure is mm Hg, while the normal diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg. What is the usual heartbeat rate at rest? At rest, the human heart usually beats 70 to 72 times per minute.

After, the physical strain the person needs more oxygen. Hence the heart pumps faster. Why is it red? Blood contains plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

It is red in color because of the presence of hemoglobin. Name the organs of the circulatory system in humans. The organs of circulatory system are heart, arteries, veins and capillaries. It is commonly seen in fishes. Double circulation: A circulatory system in which the blood travels twice through the heart in one complete cycle is known as double circulation.

It is commonly seen in amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Describe the working of the human blood circulatory system with the help of a suitable diagram which shows all the steps involved. The human blood circulatory system is composed of the heart, the blood and the blood vessels. The human heart is divided into four chambers. The upper two chambers are called right and left atrium and the lower two chambers are called the right and the left ventricles.

Following are the steps involved in the blood circulation:. Humans are warm-blooded animals hence the separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated helps in regulating the body temperature. The upper two chambers are called atria and the lower two chambers are called ventricles. Since both the auricle and ventricle remain undivided, only deoxygenated blood passes through it. The deoxygenated blood passes from the ventricles into the gills for oxygenation.

The oxygenated blood from the gills is then passed to the body parts of the fish where oxygen is utilized and carbon dioxide enters it, thereby making the blood deoxygenated. The deoxygenated blood then returns to the heart to be pumped again into the gills for oxygenation. What are its function? What are the two factors used to express the blood pressure of a person? How is it removed from the blood?

It is always expressed in the form of two factors that are called systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. The kidneys remove the urea from the blood and excrete them in the form of a dilute solution called urine. Draw a labeled diagram to illustrate your answer. Each nephron contains a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The blood containing wastes enters the glomerulus and filters the blood. During filtration, the filtrate present in the blood moves through the renal tubule where necessary materials are reabsorbed.

The nephron carries the urine into the collecting tubule of the kidney from where it is carried to the ureter. S Chand Biology Class 10 Solutions is a guide for students to learn important questions from every chapter.

Here are some reasons why it would be helpful:. Some of the advantages given here are as follows:. Lakhmir Singh has vast experience teaching science subjects and has written many books and solutions on the three main branches of science such as Biology, Biology and chemistry.

Later, he became a Professor at that college. Manjit Kaur has been a school teacher for many years, and she has co-authored various science books. She graduated with a B. Degree from Delhi University. Get Free Study materials For all classes. To Build Basics Stronger and Bolder. Sign in with Google. Checked checkbox. Create your account. Sign Up with Google. Forget Password. Send Password Reset Link. Login Now. Maharashtra Punjab Rajasthan Tamilnadu Jharkhand.

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Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. S Chand Class 10 Book Pdf. Very short answer type questions including true-false type questions and fill-in-the-blanks type questions , Short answer type questions Long answer type questions or Essay type questions , Multiple choice questions MCQs based on the theory. S Chand Class 9 Book Pdf. These Books offer a variety of MCQ exercises to practise with a solid conceptual grasp.

These are one of the finest science books for class 9th. About the Authors of These Books. In , he began writing textbooks. Lakhmir Singh says that a book cannot take the place of a teacher, but it may make pupils feel as if they are in front of one.

He has published over 15 books on science topics, including physics, chemistry, and biology. He believes in writing high-quality novels rather than quantity. She has been teaching in a reputable Department of Education school in Delhi since then. Manjit Kaur has been a school teacher for many years, and she has co-authored various science books.

She graduated with a B. Degree from Delhi University. Get Free Study materials For all classes. To Build Basics Stronger and Bolder. Sign in with Google. Checked checkbox. Create your account. Sign Up with Google. Forget Password. Send Password Reset Link. Login Now. Maharashtra Punjab Rajasthan Tamilnadu Jharkhand. Krotov Solution Evergreen Science. Physics Chemistry Maths.

Physics Chemistry Biology. HD PDF. Join Telegram For Exclusive Content. Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Biology Chapter 1 � Life Processes Solutions Biology books written by S Chand are very popular and are followed by several schools due to its practical examples and cohesive content.

Here are some reasons why it would be helpful: The Lakhmir Singh Class 10 Biology Chapter 1 � Life Processes Solutions offers various advantages to students who are appearing for the examination.

Some of the advantages given here are as follows: The S Chand Class 10 Biology Chapter 1 � Life Processes Solutions are crafted by subject experts who have vast knowledge over the subject.

You will find all the solutions in a detailed manner and without any mistake. All the chapters are divided into clear and concise manner so that it becomes easy for you to understand the concepts and solve the questions.