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I understand copyright access can limit these options when developing an OER, therefore it offers the instructors of this course the job of finding other ways to create these connections. I found a handful of grammatical, format, and spelling errors in the book which could easily be corrected. There are several ways to assess this book's cultural competence. All the chapter topics were approached in a relatively unbiased presentation.
There were occasional informal comments from the author but not as commentary on cultural bias. The chapters that directly addressed culture Chapters 3,4,6,7,12 provided basic structures of how these topics are viewed through the perspective of geographers. There were a few places in these book chapters where there could have been more forthright discussion about the cultural conflicts and shifts that have been happening in different places in the world and our country, e.
As a Human Geography professor who is using this book for an online class, I think this book offers me and the students an excellent opportunity to learn together and apply the concepts presented in real time context.
The book covers the basics of this subject, and it challenges me to build learning activities that bring them to life in the current world. I believe that the primary learning outcome for Human Geography is to support the development of "systems thinkers".
I use current events, videos such as: YouTube, Ted Talks, documentaries, News Publications, and other Library resources to have students interpret world events through the newly acquired lens of a geographer. I often use the following quote to frame our learning in this class.
But near things are more related than distant things. Tobler in I believe you can apply this idea to almost anything we study in this course knowing that the meaning of this statement will change over time. The Student Learning Outcomes, Chapter Outlines, maps, tables and graphs are useful guides for reading online or in print. The supplemental At the end of each chapter, Key Terms Defined offers easy reference and a good way for students to build vocabulary and facility with terminology.
It would be helpful to include a comprehensive glossary at the end of the book, along with a full index. Sample Questions, exercises and slides accompany each chapter. Instructors can use them as they are or revise as they see fit. The content is relevant and up to date. It includes a sufficient amount of comparative information from a broad spectrum of regions and cultures, something that many texts do not provide.
The organizational structure facilitates incorporating new and timely information without requiring major revision to the text.
Research, data and examples from current events can be added as appropriate. The text is clear, concise, free of unnecessary jargon and suitable for an introductory course. Terminology from the discipline is defined and introduced in context, often using illustrative examples. The language is not complicated, overly academic or excessively wordy. For courses that are more rigorous are for majors, instructors may wish to provide additional readings from research or professional publications.
The chapters are consistent in language, structure, organization and flow. It appears to be edited well for internal consistency. The sequence of topics and chapter structure readily allow for course material to be presented in different order or modular units. The text avoids excessive self-references. While the text illuminates connections among fundamental geographic concepts, the information in each chapter is presented so that it does not require reading in sequence.
The topic sequence is logical. Further, it can be adapted easily for courses that present information in a different order or thematic arrangement. I did not encounter any interface or navigation issues of concern. As one would expect, there may be slight differences in page numbers and display of graphics depending on the format selected e.
PDF vs Word, online or print. The text presents information in a culturally sensitive way. It does not convey value judgment or questionable cultural comparisons.
It offers a variety of examples featuring different races, ethnicities and backgrounds. The text could include links to supplementary resources to expand these further.
Overall, this is a sound, suitable choice for introductory human geography courses. It presents the basic information that instructors can supplement easily if they choose to cover specific topics in more depth. A few areas that might be included or expanded as the materials are revised: gender and identity; examples or features about research methods, current research and careers related to geography; references to multimedia on geographic topics.
The text provides a comprehensive introduction to the traditional topics in human geography and covers all areas and concepts appropriately. Each chapter starts with Student Learning Outcomes and Chapter Outline sections, and ends up with two very Most of the chapters have also Summary sections.
The text is illustrated with maps, tables and figures, but the use of these illustrative materials should be more balanced between the chapters. Chapter 5 The Geography of Language for example, contains only one map, whereas in the following chapter about religions the reading material is supported with 13 maps. Some of the maps are from and need updating. The textbook is up to date. Due to the constantly changing subject matter of human geography the examples, the maps, and the figures in all of the chapters should be updated every three or four years.
The textbook is clearly written and easily understandable even for students who are encountering the basics of human geography for the first time. The chapters are arranged by topics, and each chapter is organized into smaller reading sections that can be easily assigned for individual or group work.
Most of the chapters include short introductions. The textbook is organized in 13 chapters, each one covering a specific topic. The flow is traditional for human geography texts. All of the races, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds are addressed with respect. There are thirteen chapters. Each chapter focuses on a subdiscipline of human geography.
However the chapters are not as comprehensive as a regular human geography textbook. Most of the relevant theory for each subdiscipline of human geography is Most of the relevant theory for each subdiscipline of human geography is covered, but postmodern geographic theory is missing.
There are no major errors that I noticed. It looks unbias. It presents multiple perspectives. However it does not use enough information from different sources.
Most data that is used for each chapter is up-to-date. The text can be easily updated as the editions change. However it might be difficult to update maps and images. The text is written with a clear language. It is easy to follow the content.
Even if English is not the first language of a student, the theory and concepts can be understood easily. Each chapter is arranged in a way that is consistent. Chapters are introduced with chapter outlines and student learning outcomes. The book is divided into various chapters. Each chapter has subtitles with small reading sections. The structure of the book is very well organized.
The order of the chapters are logical, follows one another. It helps connect one topic to another. There is good amount of images inserted in to the text. Images are small but easy to read. Images make content easy to understand. English is my second language. It is hard for me to evaluate the grammatical mistakes. I have noticed no grammatical errors. Most chapters are written with great cultural sensitivity. Examples that are provided are inclusive of a variety of backgrounds.
However the book could include a chapter on cultural geography that focuses on issues of identity, such as gender and sexuality. Also there could be more cultural examples from various parts of the world. Most of the examples that are provided are from North America. It is an average quality textbook for an open resource. The book is formatted in a way that it is easy to read for first year college course. The content is easy to follow for students who do not have prior knowledge on the topic.
Geography is a diverse discipline that has some sort of connection to most every other academic discipline. This connection is the spatial perspective, which essentially means if a phenomenon can be mapped, it has some kind of relationship to geography. Studying the entire world is a fascinating subject, and geographical knowledge is fundamental to a competent understanding of our world. In this chapter, you will learn what geography is as well as some of the fundamental concepts that underpin the discipline.
These fundamental terms and concepts will be interwoven throughout the text, so a sound understanding of these topics is critical as you delve deeper into the chapters that follow.
Content Accuracy rating: 5 I found the content accurate and free of errors, but I have not yet used this textbook for teaching a course.
Clarity rating: 5 I found the materials to be clearly written. It may, however, be considered a population declines over the last decade or so.
Environmental and accepting immigrants, are taken up. For example, many developing and child-healthcare programmes, that would countries, such as, China and India have be available to all. In , Doubling Time of World Population at the United Nations International Conference Another way of comparing population growth on Population and Development ICPD , most rates is by calculating the time it takes for a nations endorsed a plan to stabilise world population to double using the current annual population over the next two decades.
The growth rate. In Table 2. Table 2. India countries and regions at current rate of natural provides a sobering example, for if its current increase has been given. It would be apparent 1. Both than that in the developed world. Although the the birth and the death rates are very high, Crude Death Rates CDRs in both groups are but the death rate declines during periods of low, the average Crude Birth Rates CBRs in prosperity, and rises during times of famines, developing countries are nearly three times diseases or wars.
Why The Second stage begins with the is it so? Demographers F. Notestein technological revolutions that characterise the recognise a close link between the processes of early stages of economic development. In the economic development and those of population eighteenth and the nineteenth century Europe growth.
Together changes in demographic trends. Improved diets, public health changes in population dynamics with and medical care led to a sharp decline in death industrialisation, and urbanisation processes rates. Birth rates, however, remained high in associated with economic development has initial periods of prosperity they began to been shown.
It is conventionally portrayed as decline later but at a slow pace, as socio- having there stages. The demographic trends before the processes of result is a sharp increase in population growth. It portrays the In the third stage, death rates even off at a low demography of Europe prior to Industrial level, while birth rates are low but fluctuating Revolution, or that of Japan in the mid- with net growth rates near zero.
In some of the nineteenth century, or perhaps a tribal developed European countries, even a fourth community living in tropical forests in isolation.
Low birth rates are The common characteristic is that the combined with rising death rates. Such a trend population is relatively small and stable net results in declining populations. However, most phase of population explosion, middle of of Africa and some Asian and Latin American population explosion and on the verge of countries have remained in the high-growth completing the growth stage.
Thus five phase of demographic transition for several categories types of population growth may be decades because cultural tradition of large visualised in all Fig. There are, however, strong. As such there is no assurance that significant differences in the trends of these countries will experience the economic population growth between developed and and societal changes that led to decline in birth developing countries.
So far, at least in a significant part of the Demographic Transition developing world, the sharp decline in birth STAGE I rates, that occurred in the last part of Stage II Type 1 : Primitive Demographic Regime : in the demographic transition model is still High birth and death rates and speculative.
Now the average death rate growth rates of population. Birth rate trends in the developing Low birth and death rates, countries will be the main determinant of approximately equal, no population size just as they have been for population growth.
Fertility, Age ï¿½ structure and population Demographic trends in the developing Momentum : Besides birth and death rates, two world do not reflect the same trends as seen in variables also play an important role in Europe and North America. Population has predicting demographic trends: Total Fertility grown rapidly during the past several decades Rate TFR is the average number of children due to improved health and longevity.
But born to a woman. Today, the TFR average for there is a wide variation among the developing the developed world is 1. In recent years family rate is population structure, especially the age planning programmes have contributed to the composition of a population.
Comparison of decline in growth rates. The most significant birth rates and fertility rates will reveal the reduction in population growth has occurred importance of this factor. In , for example, in those Asian and Latin American countries, Singapore and Spain had similar crude birth where birth rates have declined in response to rates In other in this category. We may, thus, conclude that words, areas with a high proportion of young the factors influencing the level of fertility in adults may be expected to have high birth rate any area are largely economic, social and figures.
New towns, pioneer settlements and cultural rather than physical. Answer the following questions briefly: i What was the world population at the dawn of twenty-first century? Distinguish between: i Arithmetic density and physiological density of population; ii Crude birth rate and crude death rate; iii Push and pull factors of migration. Write short notes on the following: i Doubling time of world population; ii Demographic transition.
Discuss the factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world. Discuss the consequences of population growth and decline. Explain why the population growth has been rapid in last few hundred years? Geographical Skills 7. On an outline map of the world, show the following with suitable shading: Most densely and least densely populated countries, one each in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and Oceania You may refer to Appendix I.
The measurable and which help us distinguish one size of the various age-groups does vary from group of people from the other. Age, sex, one population to the other and also over the literacy, place of residence and occupation are course of time. If the number of children in the some of the important components, which population is high, the dependency ratio will reflect the composition of population. They also be high. A large size of population in the age- help in setting future agenda for development.
Similarly, Thus three kinds of shapes are associated with a growing population in the age group of 60 three kinds of population situation: plus indicates greater expenditure on the care l A Stationary Population : A regularly of the aged.
If there are large number of young tapering pyramid shows unchanging birth people, and the birth rate is high, the and death-rates over a long period of time.
On the other extreme, if the birth rate birth rate and high death rate. At The age-structure of the world population times, extreme events like wars, and natural reveals, the following characteristics: calamities can distort the age-structure, i World population is more youthful with because of losing population in certain age- about 36 per cent population in the age- groups.
There are regional Generally, population of a country is variations though as the corresponding grouped under three broad age-groups: figures for the more developed and the Children years ; adults years ; developing regions are 23 per cent and and aged 60 years and above.
There is yet, Examination of age-group statistics of wider variations at a lower level ï¿½ different parts of the world reveals that the continents and countries. The proportion proportion of adult population is least variable of young population ranges from less than of the three groups. The major regional 25 per cent in Europe to about 40 per differences lie in the proportions of children and cent in Asia and Latin America and nearly the aged.
Countries that are On the basis of the variations, three types characterised with high fertility rates have of age-structures have been identified : large proportions of young populations i The West European Type: Children and and the vice-versa.
This age-group is the aged constitute 30 per cent and 15 economically unproductive and needs per cent population respectively. This group is biologically the aged constitute only per cent most reproductive, economically the most population.
For this purpose, 5 or 10 as the population of a country completes years of age-groups are normally used. Each its demographic evolution. In the age-group of a population is represented by a developed countries, the number of horizontal bar, the length of which is females in this age-group is more than that proportional to the percentage of males and of the males.
Increasing population of this females in that age-group. Males are arranged age-group has more demands on health to the left and females to the right of a vertical and social services. Sex-ratio has a profound effect composition of rural and urban areas in on other demographic features like, growth of different countries, shows that the migration population, marriage rates, occupational stream does not produce similar results.
It is structure, etc. But a and in Western European countries are just number of pre and post-natal conditions, at the opposite of those in Asian countries like times, alter this situation very drastically. In India. In the western countries, the males developing countries infant mortality is higher outnumber the females in rural areas and the among males than the females so that excess females outnumber the males in urban areas. Even In country like India reverse is the case.
The in developed countries, male mortality is higher excess of females in the urban communities of than female mortality at all stages of life. As the USA and the Europe is primarily the result such excess of males at birth is progressively of influx of females from their rural areas to eliminated, until from about the age of 30 avail of the vast employment opportunities in onwards there is an increasing dominance of urban areas.
Farming in rural areas remains females. In many developing countries, women largely a masculine occupation. By contrast, being given a subordinate role in the society, the sex ratio in Asian cities, especially in India, often suffer high mortality rates in child birth.
Overall sex- of male migration. Problems of housing, high ratio in these countries is often unfavourable cost of living, paucity of work opportunities and to females. In earlier times international and long-distance The division of population into rural and urban migration almost always showed a marked is based on the residence and is made at a predominance of males, thus creating a serious different size-point in most of the countries. At present the male differ from each other in terms of their livelihood predominant regions are only such fringe areas and social environment.
The occupational as Alaska and the Northern Territory of structure, density of population, and level of Australia, both of which have 1, men for social and economic growth, vary between the every 1, women.
The urban population, concerned. In developing countries, especially on the other hand are engaged in non- in Africa and Asia, there is a marked agricultural activities. People are attracted to predominance of male migration from villages urban areas in search of employment to towns.
Indian towns have an unusually high opportunities, better social facilities and higher proportion of males; in Kolkata, for example, standard of living. The urban population there are women for every 1, man. In increases due to natural growth and migration economically advanced nations the reverse is of people from rural areas.
With the exception of migration Criteria of labelling a settlement urban vary to the centres of mining and heavy industries, from one country to another. In USA, an area and military towns, females also migrate from with a population of less than 2,, is rural to urban areas. In India, all population had an urban residence. With areas which are not urban, are, by definition, about 77 per cent of its population being rural.
Table 3. In other words, the urban of different continents in Asia Urban: 38 Rural: 62 2. Africa Urban: 38 Rural: 62 3. Europe Urban: 75 Rural: 25 4. Latin America and Urban: 75 Caribbean Rural: 25 5. North America Urban: 77 Rural: 71 23 6. Oceania 30 Urban: 21 70 Rural: 9 30 Fig. About two centuries ago , living, social status of females, availability of only 2.
Level of economic development is third of the total world population lived in cities. Most of literates in different regions of the world. The this urban growth, about 60 per cent of 60 developed and urban economies reflect higher million reflects natural increase among current literacy rate and higher standards of education.
It is only in the A prominent feature of population developing countries of the world today, that redistribution, particularly in developing the literacy revolution is yet to take its shape countries, is the growth of major cities. Almost where such differences occur more. Between and , the urban Table 3. It is projected that there will be about 8 billion city dwellers by All Developing Countries Arab States As a result, few countries would be able to handle Latin America and Caribbean Ten million people die annually in densely populated urban areas South East Asia Pacific OECD It High Income There is a wide variation over the world in the literacy Low Income The proportional distribution of development.
The most appropriate strategies this active population under specific economic need to be followed at different points of time activities is known as occupational structure. Large size population has been The United Nations has identified the following viewed by many as a negative factor in the categories of occupations: agriculture, forestry, development.
However, much depends on its hunting and fishing; mining and quarrying; quality. Given the uneven rate of population This classification is essential for growth and technological breakthroughs in food international comparisons but each country production, there are difficulties in forecasting classifies its population in different rates of increase in food supply or how occupational categories according to its own consumption will vary. The fact, however, needs. If not, how far are these differences in intellectual occupations, whose task is to growth rate responsible for creating imbalance think, research and develop ideas.
The proportion of working population Growth of population, thus becomes a vital engaged in these activities vary significantly element in any assessment of population among different countries depending upon resource balance. But we can not ignore the their levels of economic development. The fact that high growth of population or the proportion of working population is very high deficiency of the resources alone are not in primary activities, if the economy is less responsible for the imbalance.
The nature of developed. As it moves forward, the proportion social structure, the stage of technological in secondary and then in tertiary increase advancement, the characteristics of gradually.
In highly industrialised countries, distribution system and the public policies are the proportion of people employed in tertiary the elements that influence the balance sector is more than per cent.
In the USA, between the people and the resources. Thus, it is more than 70 per cent. This complex Individual indices are computed first on the relationship has been presented by different basis of a given formula. The report states that regardless of the level of development, the three choices for the people are: to lead a long and healthy life, to be knowledgeable, and to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living.
The Human Development Index HDI , constructed every year since by the United Nations, measures average achievements in basic human development in one simple composite index and produces a ranking of countries. Computing the HDI To construct the Index, fixed minimum and maximum values have been established for each of the indicators: l Life expectancy at birth : 25 years and 85 Fig.
Twenty values range from 0. Of the countries 97 rank l Disparities between regions are higher on the HDI than on GDP per capita, significant, with some having more suggesting that they have converted ground to cover in making up shortfalls income into human development very than others.
Sub-Saharan Africa has effectively. Latin America and the Caribbean, South These countries have been less successful Asia nearly three times as much as East in translating economic prosperity into Asia without China. Answer the following questions briefly: i What is meant by population composition? Why is there a wide variation in the literacy rates among different countries of the world? Distinguish between progressive population and regressive population.
Describe the characteristics of world population as revealed by the age-structure. Discuss the factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-ratio found in different parts of the world.
Discuss the pattern of rural-urban population in the world. Explain the interrelationship between population and development. Geographical Skills 8. According to the available distribution and consumption of goods and archaeological evidences, agricultural services. With the evolution of human society, revolution was experienced in the river valleys, the nature of economic activities has changed where ancient civilisations flourished.
Artisanal activities in support of agriculture as well as to meet other Humans, ever since their appearance on the basic needs and aesthetic tastes grew. Trade earth, have depended on the physical in agricultural and artisan products led to environment for their survival and the opening of transport routes. Villages development. Even today, we depend on the increased in size to form small and then large nature for many of our material and aesthetic towns.
Some 5, years ago, the Nile Delta needs. Without sunshine, rocks, minerals, soil, in Egypt, the river valleys of the Euphrates and water, vegetation and animals, our very the Tigris in Mesopotamia and the Indus in existence will be impossible. India witnessed the blossoming of well The early humans led a simple, though developed cities and towns. But the base of all arduous life. Their needs were limited. They these cities was agriculture and related moved from place to place in search of food activities.
They hunted animals and gathered After the elapse of several millennium, a fruits, nuts, roots, stems and leaves of edible revolutionary change in human civilisation plants to satisfy their hunger. The subsistence took place in Europe during the eighteenth of people based on hunting of animals and century. At that time, Europe was gathering of wild plant foods and fishing agriculturally less developed due to without domestication of plants and animals unfavourable climatic conditions.
The is known as foraging. While the and living in the permanent villages triggered agricultural revolution was triggered off by a off agricultural revolution. All these better and more organised way of using the developments did not occur simultaneously, biological products of nature, the industrial nor did they occur in isolation. They were revolution relied on the use of energy stored in interrelated, each acting as a cause as well as nature in the form of coal, and later petroleum.
It helped people avoid the drudgery of manual When did the agricultural revolution take labour and produce non-agricultural place? It is difficult to answer this question, commodities on a mass scale. Moreover, trade. The European countries used its power to up new and greater opportunities for improve the life of their people. They had limited development and if handled judiciously, without natural resources and hence, limited scope for enlarging the gulf between the rich and the poor.
The overseas colonies not only gave With this background, we may now identify them ample natural resources but also vast different kinds of economic activities such market to sell their industrial goods. It is as hunting and gathering, pastoralism, reflected through the transport routes that mining, fishing, agriculture, manufacturing developed in these colonies during that period.
These are broadly grouped as this design. Consequently, the situation primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary reversed. Europe which was underdeveloped activities. These became less developed. The two transform raw materials into finished goods world wars and several localised conflicts having higher value. For example, aroused the human conscience against manufacturing cotton textiles from cotton, and unbridled industrialisation in producing arms iron and steel from iron ore come under and ammunitions.
Environmental crises forced secondary activities. Growing poverty in the services provided to people such as education, three continents of Asia, Africa and South health, trade and transport. America in the midst of increasing income in Quaternary activities represent a special the industrial world, shook the faith of people type of service, which is related to high in industrialisation as the panacea for all ills.
The role of information increased and by s, While labeling human activities as primary, the production and transmission of knowledge secondary, tertiary, and quaternary, let us not became a major preoccupation in the west. A think that they are independent of each other. With popularly known as information revolution, advancements in science and technology, the became a reality by the turn of the twentieth nature of production in all fields has changed century.
The Industrial Era still lingers on; but so greatly that all these sectors have become the signs of its early demise are clear and interdependent. In any case, primary activities are almost the only source of food supply and raw materials for industries. Among these activities are included some of the most primitive activities like hunting and gathering, which sustained human beings for more than 95 per cent of their existence on the earth.
Also included are the modern agricultural systems. In this chapter, we propose to discuss only the primitive agricultural activities and mining.
Hunting and Gathering Until 12, years ago, all humans lived as hunters and gatherers. They occupied nearly all the liveable space on the planet. At present, not more than 1 in , persons less than 0. Historically, this form of economy involved frequent migration in search of food. People lived in small groups, having virtually no private property. Simple implements like spears, bows and arrows were used for hunting. Locally available materials were used for their clothing and shelter.
London: Times Book. On the other extreme, the hunting ï¿½ gathering people urbanisation progressed. Present day hunters- successfully colonised the tropical rainforests. The Arctic Inuit; Pygmies and in a major way. As recently as A. Semang of Malaysia are some examples of the , they occupied about one-third of the foragers, who represent the oldest adaptation globe, including whole of Australia, most of to human environment.
Since, then their numbers have declined Fig. The The domestication of animals was one of the twentieth century has witnessed profound early steps in the development of civilisation changes in their ways of living. Their land and Fig. Pastoral Nomadism : It is a subsistence activity depending on animals. Since these people do not live a settled life, they are called nomads. Each nomadic community occupies a well-defined territory.
These people are aware of the seasonal changes in the availability of pasture and water supply within the area occupied by them. The animals depend entirely on natural vegetation. Cattles are reared in grasslands receiving Fig. Domesticated Animals Sheep are reared in low rainfall areas with short found in those regions e.
Goats are common in the rugged the grasslands, sheep and reindeer in the terrain with scanty grasses. There are six tundra regions, camel in the tropical deserts, widely distributed species reared by pastoral and llama and yak in the high altitudes of the nomads: sheep, goats, camels, cattle, horses Andes and the Himalaya respectively. These and donkeys. In the tropical and temperate of herders follows the change in seasons. For Fig.
Similarly, in the tundra Mining region, the nomadic herders move from south The mining and quarrying of rocks and to north in summers and from north to south minerals is an age ï¿½ old economic activity, in winters. Such seasonal migration of people though its nature and form has changed in with their animals is known as transhumance.
Use of minerals by the early Pastoral nomadism is associated with seven humans was probably restricted to picking distinct areas : high latitude Sub-Arctic; up a rock and using it as a tool for crushing Eurasian steppe; mountainous south-west seeds or hunting animals. Gradually, humans Asia; Saharan and Arabian deserts; Sub- switched over from tool-using to tool-making. Saharan savannas; the Andes; and the Asian The progressive and increasingly sophisticated high altitude plateaus.
These may broadly be use of mineral resources is marked with grouped under three broad regions. The largest different stages of human civilisation. From region extends over nearly 13, km, from flint spear head to clay pots, to copper dagger, the Sahel and Sahara in Africa to Mongolia and to bronze vessels, to iron chains, and so on, Central China.
The second region includes the humans have moved on discovering and using southern border of the tundra region in new minerals. On the basis of the mineralï¿½use, Eurasia. The third region comprises of south- eight ages of the human civilisation are usually west Africa and the western part of identified.
Table 4. These areas have either too hot and dry or too cold climates. In these regions, Table 4. Today, nomadic herding Neolithic New Stone 8, B. Bronze 3, B. Pastoralism is a distinctive form of Iron B.
Instead of depending B. It can be as simple as shoveling sand maximum yields of milk or meat. Emphasis is or as complex as drilling tunnels, blasting rock laid on genetic improvement, disease control and lifting ore from thousands of metres deep and health care of animals. Cultivation of beneath the ground. In the early days mechanically and on scientific lines.
Greeks and Romans in Globally, the mineral use has increased over the ancient time operated their mines with time. Since the industrial revolution, associated captive armies or indigenous peoples under technological developments and growing their control. By the Middle Ages, mining was population, have increased the use of minerals considered a noble profession. Mining guilds at very high rates. During last century, mineral in England and Germany were powerful use increased 13 times or more.
In Minerals : Types and Importance modern times, mining is no longer a major As we have read, mining refers to the extraction employer. Mechanisation has increased of minerals. What are minerals? Why are they efficiency and productivity and hence only a important? Where are they found?
They times. They are of Some Minerals exhaustible or non-renewable. Besides, they We will now discuss the distribution and are distributed very unevenly.
They are production of a few important mineral generally found in the form of ores, which resources Table 4. While iron, copper and contain several impurities. Minerals are bauxite are metallic minerals, coal and mineral separated from the ores involving a number of oil are fossil fuels.
Iron Minerals occur in different types of formations e. Many important mineral qualities ï¿½ hardness, strength, durability, deposits are contained within igneous malleability and above all the possibility of its intrusions and are found at different depths conversion into different forms.
Iron is found in the form of iron ores. They are of different as they solidified at different temperatures. As types: haematite, magnetite, limonite and such some of them are often found in siderite.
The metallic content of iron in these association with the other such as silver with ores is highly variable. If the iron content of an lead and zinc because they solidify at a similar iron ore is more than 30 per cent, only then it temperature.
Other minerals may be found at is worth extraction. Minerals are broadly divided into two groups : metallic and non-metallic. Metallic minerals are those which yield metals such as iron, copper, silver and gold. They are indispensable to the contemporary society. All other minerals such as salts, sulphur, coal and petroleum belong to the non-metallic group. Majority of the minerals are inorganic in nature.
Coal and petroleum or mineral oil owe their origin to the fossils of plants and animals buried vegetation and animals and hence are organic in nature. Since they are used as fuel, they are also known as fossil fuels or mineral Fig.
Minerals are distributed unevenly. Like several other metals, iron ore deposits Commercially viable mineral deposits are are associated mainly with the major igneous found only in selected places. However, intrusions. Russia has the largest proven are not worth extraction because of high reserves of iron ore in the world.
China emerged production cost. Economically important as the biggest producer of iron ore in the world minerals include iron, manganese, lead, in , followed by Brazil, Australia, India aluminium bauxite , copper, nickel, tin and Russia. Find out the trend in the and zinc. It is malleable and corrosion resistant. It is used mainly in the electrical industry because it is a good conductor.
However, in recent years, the increasing use of glass fibres has reduced the pressure on copper. Copper is used for making different kinds of alloys. For example, copper is mixed with tin to make bronze. Similarly, copper and zinc are mixed to make brass. Chile is the largest Fig.
Large deposits Compare the production of copper with that of of bauxite are found mainly in the tropical bauxite Fig 4. Aluminium production is, however, concentrated mainly in the developed countries, where electricity is cheap and abundant. Bauxite, if not available locally, is imported from outside. Coal It is one of the most important sources of energy. It formed the basis of industrial revolution, though its importance has declined after the entry of mineral oil and natural gas later on.
Coal is found in seams of sedimentary Bauxite rocks, mostly belonging to the carboniferous Bauxite is the ore of aluminium. Like iron, it is period. The quality of coal is judged by the being used widely in a variety of ways ï¿½ amount of the carbon content.
With age, the machine tools, electricals, utensils, aeroplanes, carbon concentration in the coal seams packing and construction. Extraction of increases, while the moisture content aluminium from bauxite requires large decreases. Newly formed coal is of the most amount of electricity. It is, therefore, called an inferior quality for this reason. Many major dams There are three types of coal. Anthracite in the world have been constructed to supply more than 90 per cent carbon is the best cheap hydro-electricity for smelting quality of coal.
It is very hard, shiny, free of aluminium. The Hoover dam on the river impurities, and less smoky, when burnt. When it is burnt, it It is, therefore, of the lowest grade. It yields Coal is found in large quantities in the UK, bitumen or tar and hence called bituminous.
It gives out highly smoky flames China and the USA, together contribute about 60 per cent of the total coal production in the world. Coal production has been fluctuating over the years Fig. Mineral Oil Mineral oil is of great economic importance because of its efficiency and versatility. One unit weight of oil gives more energy than the same weight of coal.
Mineral oil is generally, formed in the dome-shape structures of the sedimentary rocks. Invariably natural gas and mineral oil are found together Fig. Though sedimentary rocks are widely distributed on the earth, all of them do not contain mineral oil. Only a few regions in the world have very Fig. There has been a steady rise in the mineral oil production Fig.
Desirable Depending upon the location of mineral knowledge and technology available for the use ores, mining is of two types: surface and of minerals, sufficient demand for the ore, underground. The surface mining, which is adequate supply of labour and capital to also known as open cast mining or quarrying, develop the requisite infrastructure as well is easier. At present about 90 per cent of all as the mines are the major economic mines and 99 per cent of non-metallic mines consideration.
The mode of occurrence and Mineral production is extremely important the nature of the ore determine the method of in the economies of many developing extraction. Sedimentary or bedded ores lying countries.
Several countries in Africa and a few close to the surface are called open cast mines. Poisonous gases, fires, floods and cavings lead Mining employs millions of artisan miners to fatal accidents. In this kind of mining, across the world. In Latin America, about vertical or inclined shafts and horizontal 1 million artisan miners are engaged in gold tunnels are made and connected with mining alone.
Rocks are extracted involving artisan or corporations quite often and transported to surface through these cause social conflicts. Much of the mining passages. They serve for safe and efficient movement of people and the global markets through intense exploitation materials. The Akosombo The mining activity is influenced by both dam in Ghana, built in the s to provide physical and economic considerations.
Mere hydropower to smelt bauxite for an US existence of minerals in the earth is not a company, flooded more than 5 per cent of the sufficient condition for mining activity. The country. It displaced 80, people to create physical characteristics of ore formation ï¿½ size, the largest artificial lake on the earth.
Answer the following questions briefly: i What is foraging? Distinguish between: i Industrial revolution and information revolution; ii Primary activities and secondary activities; iii Pastoral nomadism and commercial livestock rearing; iv Metallic minerals and non-metallic minerals.
Write short notes on the following: i Hunting and Gathering; ii Factors influencing mining activity. Discuss the positive and negative impacts of industrial revolution. Describe the main features of pastoral nomadism and the areas associated with it.
Explain why mining still continues to be an important human activity and what kind of changes it has undergone over the years. This broad climatic framework is is the most important. Nearly half of the still the main influence on the pattern of world population is still dependent on agriculture, though the limits of growing it.
In developing countries, the proportion of particular crops have now changed under people dependent on agriculture is over 65 per human influence. With the beginning of agriculture, the About 12, years ago, the first farmers nomadic herding gave way to a comparatively selected their crops and animals for settled life. Different crops It is mainly practiced in the tropical forests.
Using simplest tools, fields are simultaneously. After a few years Despite all the developments since then, of crop production, the soils get exhausted. This kind of regions thousands of years ago. Only about cultivation is known by different names in 20 crops out of several thousands species of different parts of the world e.
It is clear from the brief Roka in Brazil and Masole in Democratic description below that the initial selections Republic of the Congo. Though, shifting were influenced by the climate and the natural cultivation is also migratory in nature, it vegetation.
The distribution of biomes reflects allowed people to stay in a place for a longer the distribution of solar radiation, temperature duration. Great civilisations were built on the of hybrid seeds, chemical fertilisers and foundation of sedentary agriculture in the fertile pesticides increased the yield of crops river valleys ï¿½ the Euphrates, the Tigris, the dramatically in many areas, though at varying Nile, the Indus, the Huang He and the Chang rates.
Jiang, about 6, years ago. Gradually, the Plant dispersal and industrialisation of sedentary system of agriculture spread over agriculture improved agricultural production most parts of the world. Large number of people were freed The industrial revolution, which took place to pursue other economic activities because in the eighteenth century in Europe, influenced high yields could be achieved with less number Asia, Africa and Latin America indirectly.
It of people and using scientific and technological boosted agricultural production in Europe and innovations. The industrialised countries of the changed the cropping pattern in the Asian, world, therefore, witnessed a perceptible shift African and Latin American colonies. These of population from primary activities to colonies specialised in the production of crops secondary and tertiary activities in a sequential such as cotton, sugarcane, rice, tea, coffee and manner viewed as a sign of economic rubber, which were processed in the European development, though in developing countries factories.
As demands for these crops grew in employment structure has moved directly from Europe, the large-scale commercial farming of primary to tertiary sectors. They were managed scientifically with the sole Physical environment, which includes climate, objective of export or trading for earning soil and relief, imposes certain broad limits money.
Besides, species of plants and animals. For example, socio-economic institutions are also important potatoes, a native of the Andes, flourished in factors in crop production.
Climate Similarly, corn maize spread across the world Temperature and rainfall are the two most to become the third most widely grown grain important climatic factors in limiting the areas after rice and wheat.
The industrial revolution in Europe provided more efficient and more specialised Temperature agricultural implements such as plough, reaper, threshing machines, harvesters, It is an important determinant of the tractors and milking machines. They changed distribution of crops because suitable the character, scale and geography of temperature conditions are essential for the agricultural production.
In North America, successful germination of seeds and plant mechanisation enabled farmers to expand and growth. On the basis of the temperature specialise in the production of commodities that requirements, crops may be divided into two could be sold for the maximum profit. Thus categories : crops adapted to the high specialised commercial agricultural systems temperature conditions of the tropics, and emerged there, which gave rise to distinct crop those adapted to the lower temperature regions ï¿½ wheat belt, cotton belt, corn belt, conditions of the sub-tropical and temperate dairy farming and truck farming fruits and areas.
In other parts of the world T ropical crops, adapted to high also, similar technological revolutions brought temperature conditions 31oC - 37oC may be power driven machines. A few of them are so susceptible between 25 cm and cm, wheat is the most to cold that they will die at a temperature below widely grown crop.
About 10 per cent of the 10oC. However, some of the temperate crops land has more than cm of annual rainfall can be grown in the tropics at higher altitudes and only 5 per cent of the land receives over such as apples, wheat and oats. As such tea and rubber, have a much Crops grown in the sub-tropics and the more restricted distribution.
The growing season between the overcome with the help of irrigation either from last frost in winter and the first frost in autumn groundwater or from rivers and tanks. The is very crucial for the growth of plants in these amount of water available in the soil for the regions. As one moves towards the poles, this crop also depends on the rate of evaporation, period gets smaller.
As such, the number of which increases with temperature. Hence, crops that can be grown polewards, also crops in the tropics need higher rainfall than declines. North of the Arctic Circle only rye and in the temperate zone. Similarly, many crops also have limits Soil towards the equator. Some of them need a cold Soil is the essential material upon which all period to trigger growth and cannot withstand agriculture is based. Soil characteristics are high rainfall. They are also susceptible to diseases found in the tropics.
There are a few largely the product of the climate. In addition crops e. Despite varying temperature soil. As we temperature during seed germination. They contain minerals, It provides moisture to the soil that is essential which are essential for plant growth. The soil for crop growth. Every plant has a root system forming process makes the original elements with an enormous total surface area to draw of the rock more mobile so that plants could water from the soil. Water-need of plants varies.
While wheat requires about 1, kg of water There are six major nutrient elements. They to produce 1 kg of wheat, for the same amount are: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, of rice, 10, kg of water is required. Besides, In the absence of sufficient amount of water, the plants cannot grow.
It, however, does not iron and small quantities of trace elements such mean that crop yields will increase as boron and iodine are also required by plants. There is an climatic factors ï¿½ temperature and rainfall of optimum amount of water for every crop and the region. In tropical regions, the nutrients this requirement varies significantly from one are easily leached out because of high rainfall.
Rubber and tea, for example, In temperate regions, the soils have more need over cm of annual rainfall. Wheat, nutrients. Desert soils have high concentration on the other hand, can be grown in regions of nutrients but the lack of water makes them having the annual rainfall between 25 and immobile and unavailable.
It is a slow process. Hence, they alone will not adequately explain patterns for faster nutrient replacement, chemical of agricultural land use.
The scale, intensity fertilisers, mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and and extent of production within physical limits potassium are added to the soil.
Heavier clay soils with adequate transport and marketing facilities, the drainage are more suitable to certain crops. The physical may be used for cultivation after heavy limits of production are relatively stable and application of fertiliser.
But the economic margin of production Relief fluctuates according to demand. Hence, within Three elements of relief ï¿½ altitude, orientation any particular environment many choices and of slope to sunlight and gradient, influence the options are normally open to the farmer. The pattern of agricultural activities. In the by the physical environment as well as various tropics, on the other hand, increased altitude social and economic factors.
On a local scale, orientation of the slope is The land under cultivation in the world is rather an important element of relief. In the northern limited.
Constraints of climate, slope, soil and hemisphere, south-facing slopes receive more pests continue to limit the arable land use to a intensive sunshine for a longer period than comparatively small percentage of all land uses their north-facing counterparts.
The gradient Fig 5. Much larger areas are useable as of slopes affects the type of agriculture as pasture and forests. Steep gradient If we compare the three major land uses at restricts the use of heavy machineries. Besides, the global scale during last three centuries the risk of soil erosion is also greater here. Table 5. Socio-Economic Institutions Presently, 32 per cent of the total land area While factors of physical environment impose of the world is under forests, 26 per cent under basic limits upon agricultural production, pasture, 1 per cent under permanent crops, Table 5.
In Turner, B. Of Crops are generally, categorised on the these, three are cereal grains : wheat, rice bases of their various uses such as cereals, and maize corn , and the other two : pulses, oilseeds, fibres and beverages. The potatoes and cassava, are tubers. All of other way is to group them under food crops them share the above mentioned qualities.
Few crops have been In combination they provide the staple food selected for a detailed study keeping in view to nearly all the humans on the earth their importance and area under their cultivation. In our discussion we will be Table 5. Of the immense The difference in the area of the five major varieties of plants, only a few were food crops is mainly because of the climatic domesticated thousands of years ago and they requirements of the crop, which limit their still continue to be the major food sources.
The developing countries in These species have three common comparison to the developed countries have characteristics: high production per unit of higher per hectare yield due to their relative land; high food value; and storage ability.
All cereal grains The rice-plant paddy machineries. In fact, in the initial stages, the plant needs more of stagnant water. Hence, the It is suggested that rice originated in the paddy fields are flooded with cm of foothills of the eastern Himalayas in north-east water.
On hill slopes, rice is grown in terraced India, Indo-China and south-west China fields. Claye loam soil is best suited for its perhaps on the basis of the large concentration cultivation because it can retain water.
Based on the Rice is a labour intensive crop. Most of the archaeological evidences, the earliest date of farming operations are done manually ï¿½ rice cultivation is supposed to be 7, years uprooting the seedlings from nurseries ago in the Chang-Jiang delta.
Its cultivation transplanting them in the flooded fields, spread to the remaining southern and eastern removing weeds from time to time and Asia over the next 6, years.
While its harvesting. Ninety per cent of the worlds' rice and different soil types. As a result, the range of rice varieties is very broad, varying from the in grown in East and South Asia. There are more than 65, local varieties of rice grown the world Wheat over. It is mainly a crop of the temperate region. But Rice is mainly the crop of the monsoon Asia, it is now the most widely grown of all the cereal having hot and humid climate Fig 5. There is Traditionally, rice was grown in the well- hardly any country which does not grow some watered river valleys and deltas.
However, with amount of wheat. It is the staple diet of people drier semi-arid climates Fig 5. The areas of in a large part of the world. Although wheat is greatest production are the Great Plains of the hardy, it does not grow well under conditions United States, and Canada, the Steppe region of high temparature and humidity.
Wheat is sufficient moisture in the soil. The annual cultivated under intensive as well as extensive rainfall should be between cm. An farming. Large-scale commercial production average temperature of 16oC and clear sky are also occurs in Australia and on the Pampas required at the time of ripening. Loam and of South America. Wheat is grown in almost chernozem soils are best suited for wheat every country of Europe but most of it is cultivation.
France is the largest On the basis of the climate, there are two producer and the only exporter of wheat types of wheat : winter wheat and spring wheat. Regions with mild winters grow winter wheat, whereas those with severe winter grow Maize Corn spring wheat. Wheat is also divided into two types on the basis of its quality i.
They are grown in humid and dry over the world from its origin in Central America regions respectively. It is a fairly high-yielding Although yields are highest in the humid crop. It grows best where summers are warm mid-latitudes, the major wheat belts are in the and humid. America 3 N. America 17 S. America 11 South America 4 N. America 1. About half other major producers. Compared to the other four food crops, it is deficient in protein Potatoes and minerals.
However, there are several It is an important food crop that grows best in compensating advantages. It grows under a a mild and humid climate. It is now grown variety of tropical conditions where other crops throughout the humid mid-latitudes. Eastern cannot be grown. Like pulses, there is a great regional crops. Ripe tubers can be left in the ground for variation in oil seeds grown in different parts long periods without any deterioration.
It is an of the world. Sugarcane Dry tubers are pounded to make flour. For It is a tropical crop, which is an important these reasons, it is a staple crop for a large source of sugar.
In temperate countries, number of people in Southeast Asia, Central however, sugar beet is the main source of sugar. Africa and tropical South America.
Sugarcane requires hot and humid climate. Pulses include enhance the sucrose content of the crop. Once lentils, black gram, peas, soyabeans and cultivated, crop can give yield for at least three several other kinds of beans. Most of these crops are of local and regional Deep soil with high moisture retention importance only. Oil seeds refer to a wide capacity is most suited.
Loam, clay, alluvial and variety of seeds, which are the sources of the black soils are good for sugarcane cultivation.
Coffee Tea plant cannot tolerate frost. It is, therefore, It is a very popular beverage obtained from the grown under shady trees. It requires high tender leaves of an evergreen bush. It requires humidity and hence, grows well in the areas warm and humid climate but water should not having rainfall between and cm.
It is, stagnate near the roots. Tea plants Haiti, Jamaica, Ethiopia and Indonesia are need fertile soils with high humus. In India, coffee is grown Tea is a plantation crop. It is grown in large mainly in Karnataka Fig 5. Tea plant is not allowed to grow beyond a height of cm. Application of nitrogen fertilisers is essential to maintain Fibre crops such as cotton and jute, rubber soil fertility.
Tea leaves are picked up by hand. As such availability of cheap labour is an Cotton and jute are the crops of the tropical essential factor. However, the climatic conditions i. Rubber tree is found widely main tea producing countries Fig 5.
Cloudless sky at the time of the ripening Sri Lanka and Kenya have also been of the cotton balls is essential.
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This connection is the spatial perspective, which essentially means if a phenomenon can be mapped, it has some kind of relationship to geography. Studying the entire world is a fascinating subject, and geographical knowledge is fundamental to a competent understanding of our world. In this chapter, you will learn what geography is as well as some of the fundamental concepts that underpin the discipline.
These fundamental terms and concepts will be interwoven throughout the text, so a sound understanding of these topics is critical as you delve deeper into the chapters that follow. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.
The book is designed as a reference work for novice researchers in the fields of geographical and environmental education. Author : Archie K. Deen and published by Universal-Publishers. Book excerpt: Geographical Knowledge Construction and Production: Teacher and Student Perspectives is a readable and illuminating account of three high school classrooms in suburban Atlanta, Georgia.
It challenges the narrow focus of the Advanced Placement AP programme as a tool for admission into colleges and universities in the United States. The research provides insight into the College Board's AP programme and argues for teaching and learning that is transformative and geared toward equipping students with the skills and knowledge necessary to confront the challenges of the 21st century.
In particular, it advocates for geographic education that is anchored in the structure of the subject, teasing wherever possible, the contradictions and tensions embedded in the complexities of facts relating to people and places. This book is essential reading for professors and students of education, teachers and students of AP courses, parents, administrators, and state and federal agencies vested in the AP programme.
Author : P. Daniels and published by Pearson Education. Book excerpt: Providing a rich overview of to the major topics in human geography, this book offers a unique, engaging and relevant perspective to this ever-changing subject. Focussing on some of the key geographical challenges facing the world at the beginning of the 21st century, this new edition examines the forces that shape economies and societies.
Book excerpt: "A book that will delight studentsï¿½ Key Texts in Human Geography is a primer of 26 interpretive essays designed to open up the subject's landmark monographs of the past 50 years to critical interpretation The essays are uniformly excellent and the enthusiasm of the authors for the project shines throughï¿½ It will find itself at the top of a thousand module handouts.
Read any chapter and you will want to compare it with another. Before you realize, an afternoon is gone and then you are tracking down the originals. It is highly recommended for those just embarking on their careers as well as those who need a reminder of how and why geography moved from the margins of social thought to its very core.
As a result, they fail to get to grips with the subject matter and gravitate towards course textbooks instead. Key Texts in Human Geography serves as a primer and companion to the key texts in human geography published over the past 40 years. It is not a reader, but a volume of 26 interpretive essays highlighting: the significance of the text how the book should be read reactions and controversies surrounding the book the book's long-term legacy.
It is an essential reference guide for all students of human geography and provides an invaluable interpretive tool in answering questions about human geography and what constitutes geographical knowledge.
Book excerpt: How up-to-date is your geographical thought? Are parts of your curriculum becoming tired and out-dated? Effective Innovation in the Secondary Geography Curriculum will help training and practising secondary school teachers understand how to evaluate and refresh their curriculum in order to ensure that what they teach is relevant, topical and creative.
Considering the latest developments in both the school geography curriculum and the field of geography as an academic discipline, this exciting new book explores how geography teaching and learning can be developed to engage secondary school pupils and better reflect contemporary society.
Illustrated throughout with ideas and practical examples of how to update your curriculum easily and effectively, key topics covered include: Understanding curriculum theory and development; Auditing and developing your own dynamic, interactive curriculum; Critiquing textbooks and resources to ensure relevance; Constructing and analysing schemes of work; Incorporating the latest developments in the field into your teaching; How to create innovative, enduring curricula for human, physical and environmental geographies.
Providing insights into the latest thinking in geography in a concise and accessible manner, Effective Innovation in the Secondary Geography Curriculum will ensure motivating, lively and successful geography teaching and learning. Book excerpt: This history charts how geography rose to popularity on a tide of imperial enthusiasms in Victorian time and made its way into many elementary schools in the latter half of the 19th century.
Many geography lessons were not dominated by the rote-learning of capes and bays and some of the pioneers of the subject led the way in the use of models, visual aids and object lessons in schools. The book explores Scott Keltie's report of as a catalyst for development. Despite the founding of the Geographical Association in , the subject needed a series of concerted political campaigns in the early 20th centry to establish itself in the secondary sector.
The growth of the regional approach, field-work and of sample studies expanded the subject between the world wars, before a major conceptual revolution invigorated and challenged teachers of the subject in the post-war period. Book excerpt: The main focus of this book is on Theme-Rheme analysis.
In English the Theme is realized as the initial constituent of the clause or sentence. The information that is contained within the themes of the various sentences of a passage correlates with the method of development of the passage. The meaning of Theme and its realization in English explains the general correlation of given information with the initial position in the sentence.
The findings and analysis of Theme-Rheme in this book will immensely aid both researchers and students who seek to understand and unfold language structures and analyze written discourse.
It also provides teachers with efficient tools to analyze their students academic writing and find ways to leverage it. This book also sheds lights on the semantic and structure of the language based on the four analytical approaches implemented in this study.
The findings in this book suggest that control of the Theme-Rheme system is part of what the successful writer native or non-native uses to achieve such coherence. Additionally, the authors have provided a MS Word file, sample questions, exercises, Powerpoint slide decks for each chapter, and the 1st edition of the book for download.
Inside the book the authors provide internal links from the Table of Contents into each chapter and section. Additionally, hyperlinks are included in the PDF to external websites, and most but not all of the links I checked worked. There are some especially good links in the endnotes for students or instructors especially interested in a topic.
Reviewed by Serena St. Human Geography is a dynamic subject because of the changes the world experiences in culture, climate, communication, and politics. As someone who has been teaching this course for several decades and used at least six different texts including Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less. As someone who has been teaching this course for several decades and used at least six different texts including subsequent editions , the topics in this course continue to evolve.
It is a challenge to keep all the material relevant and current. There is an omission of "Gender" in Chapter Seven that has become a standard in most texts when discussing Identity: Ethnicity and Race.
Chapter Human Settlements addresses Urban topics but does not address Urban Planning with a more comprehensive foundation for students who may choose land use or urban planning for further study or careers. Chapter Ten: Agriculture discusses many aspects of food access to communities but did not mention in the chapter or under "Key Terms Defined" the idea of a "food desert" which is an important concept to understand as a Geographer. Dorrell et. They cover the basic concepts consistent with the subject.
The chapters are all relatively short pages of content therefore the depth of ideas is not present in the text. The information provided was accurate and learning outcomes are consistent with other HG textbooks. I think the challenge for writing a textbook in this subject is the ever changing nature of the human-environment experience.
The world, from a geographical standpoint, is a dynamic system. The last chapter on the environment was the only chapter that was sorely inadequate in what it introduced. It was half the length of every other chapter in the book.
While not a physical geography course, all human-environment interaction one of the five themes of Human Geography has an impact and relationship with the planet. This was a missed opportunity to put into context the physical implications from the twelve chapters prior.
This textbook is written with a combined matter-of-fact and conversational style. I found the book to be very accessible and think for an introductory class it has a good tone to engage students with this subject. Each textbook chapter follows the same format listing: Student Learning Outcomes, Chapter Outline, and then numbered subtopics under the main focus of the chapter.
The chapters are all about the same length with the exception of the final chapter 13 titled "Environment and Resources". This chapter was eleven pages of content for a topic that is critical to this academic study. Each chapter ends with a section "Key Terms Defined". There was inconsistency on the length and scope of these key terms. Some chapters had as few as a half page, while others had pages of terms. It appeared as if the author was indicating that key terms were left out of the text but still relevant to the chapter topic.
The book was well organized. The chapters are relatively short and cover key concepts to this subject. The consistency of "Key Terms" and "Works Consulted and Further Reading" could be a launch point for students to do research and go deeper in their learning process. This textbook is very consistent in its sequence of topics with other Human Geography textbooks I've used over the past two decades.
There were maps presented in each chapter to illustrate the topic. I understand copyright access can limit these options when developing an OER, therefore it offers the instructors of this course the job of finding other ways to create these connections.
I found a handful of grammatical, format, and spelling errors in the book which could easily be corrected. There are several ways to assess this book's cultural competence. All the chapter topics were approached in a relatively unbiased presentation. There were occasional informal comments from the author but not as commentary on cultural bias. The chapters that directly addressed culture Chapters 3,4,6,7,12 provided basic structures of how these topics are viewed through the perspective of geographers.
There were a few places in these book chapters where there could have been more forthright discussion about the cultural conflicts and shifts that have been happening in different places in the world and our country, e. As a Human Geography professor who is using this book for an online class, I think this book offers me and the students an excellent opportunity to learn together and apply the concepts presented in real time context.
The book covers the basics of this subject, and it challenges me to build learning activities that bring them to life in the current world.
I believe that the primary learning outcome for Human Geography is to support the development of "systems thinkers". I use current events, videos such as: YouTube, Ted Talks, documentaries, News Publications, and other Library resources to have students interpret world events through the newly acquired lens of a geographer.
I often use the following quote to frame our learning in this class. But near things are more related than distant things. Tobler in I believe you can apply this idea to almost anything we study in this course knowing that the meaning of this statement will change over time.
The Student Learning Outcomes, Chapter Outlines, maps, tables and graphs are useful guides for reading online or in print. The supplemental At the end of each chapter, Key Terms Defined offers easy reference and a good way for students to build vocabulary and facility with terminology. It would be helpful to include a comprehensive glossary at the end of the book, along with a full index. Sample Questions, exercises and slides accompany each chapter.
Instructors can use them as they are or revise as they see fit. The content is relevant and up to date. It includes a sufficient amount of comparative information from a broad spectrum of regions and cultures, something that many texts do not provide. The organizational structure facilitates incorporating new and timely information without requiring major revision to the text. Research, data and examples from current events can be added as appropriate.
The text is clear, concise, free of unnecessary jargon and suitable for an introductory course. Terminology from the discipline is defined and introduced in context, often using illustrative examples.
The language is not complicated, overly academic or excessively wordy. For courses that are more rigorous are for majors, instructors may wish to provide additional readings from research or professional publications.
The chapters are consistent in language, structure, organization and flow. It appears to be edited well for internal consistency. The sequence of topics and chapter structure readily allow for course material to be presented in different order or modular units.
The text avoids excessive self-references. While the text illuminates connections among fundamental geographic concepts, the information in each chapter is presented so that it does not require reading in sequence. The topic sequence is logical. Further, it can be adapted easily for courses that present information in a different order or thematic arrangement.
I did not encounter any interface or navigation issues of concern. As one would expect, there may be slight differences in page numbers and display of graphics depending on the format selected e. PDF vs Word, online or print. The text presents information in a culturally sensitive way. It does not convey value judgment or questionable cultural comparisons. It offers a variety of examples featuring different races, ethnicities and backgrounds. The text could include links to supplementary resources to expand these further.
Overall, this is a sound, suitable choice for introductory human geography courses. It presents the basic information that instructors can supplement easily if they choose to cover specific topics in more depth. A few areas that might be included or expanded as the materials are revised: gender and identity; examples or features about research methods, current research and careers related to geography; references to multimedia on geographic topics.
The text provides a comprehensive introduction to the traditional topics in human geography and covers all areas and concepts appropriately. Each chapter starts with Student Learning Outcomes and Chapter Outline sections, and ends up with two very Most of the chapters have also Summary sections. The text is illustrated with maps, tables and figures, but the use of these illustrative materials should be more balanced between the chapters.
Chapter 5 The Geography of Language for example, contains only one map, whereas in the following chapter about religions the reading material is supported with 13 maps. Some of the maps are from and need updating. The textbook is up to date. Due to the constantly changing subject matter of human geography the examples, the maps, and the figures in all of the chapters should be updated every three or four years.
The textbook is clearly written and easily understandable even for students who are encountering the basics of human geography for the first time. The chapters are arranged by topics, and each chapter is organized into smaller reading sections that can be easily assigned for individual or group work.
Most of the chapters include short introductions. The textbook is organized in 13 chapters, each one covering a specific topic. The flow is traditional for human geography texts.
All of the races, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds are addressed with respect. There are thirteen chapters. Each chapter focuses on a subdiscipline of human geography. However the chapters are not as comprehensive as a regular human geography textbook. Most of the relevant theory for each subdiscipline of human geography is Most of the relevant theory for each subdiscipline of human geography is covered, but postmodern geographic theory is missing.
There are no major errors that I noticed.
WebDownload or read book The Making of Geography as a Secondary School Subject written by John Mortimer and published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing. This book was . WebDownload File I have also provided a link for each chapter of the textbook. CH 1 Intro to Human Geography Ch 3 Migration CH 5 Identity, Race, Ethnicity, Gender & Sexuality . WebJul 31, ï¿½ï¿½ The Eighth Edition of Human Geography: A Brief History, an Introduction to. This geographical thought majid hussain, as one of the most involved. Human .