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Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Supasit Parinyapriwat. Read Now Download. Related Papers. Book electric power distribution handbook alimuddin jte. Asea Brown Boveri Pocket Book. Also it provides information as related to each bus type and construction. Once the bus type is selected, this guide provides the calculation tools for each bus type. Based on these calculations, the engineer can specify the bus size, forces acting on the bus structure, number of mounting structures required, and hardware requirements.
Keywords: ampacity, bus support, corona, electromagnetic, finite-element, forces, ice, mounting structure, rigid bus structures, short circuit, strain-bus structures, substation design, wind. Published 14 May Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
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This introduction provides some background on the rationale used to develop this guide. This information is meant to aid in the understanding and usage of this guide. Buses consisting of conductor structures and the associated hardware comprise a large percentage of the substation equipment investment. The proper design of substation bus structures contributes to the safe and reliable operation of the substation and the power system. Two different types of buses are most commonly used in substations: rigid bus and strain bus cable.
Also, it provides information on each bus type and construction. Based on these calculations, the engineer can specify the bus size, the forces acting on the bus structure, the number of mounting structures required, and the hardware requirements. Users of these documents should consult all applicable laws and regulations. Compliance with the provisions of this standard does not imply compliance to any applicable regulatory requirements.
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Hogan William B. Kahanek Richard P. Jerzy W. Story William R. The following members of the balloting committee voted on this guide. Balloters may have voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention. William J. Fronk D. Steven Hensley Lee S. Koepfinger David W. Krause Jim Kulchisky Donald N. Newman Robert Nowell. Robert M. Grow, Chair Tom A. Prevost, Vice Chair Steve M. Goldbach Arnold M. Greenspan Kenneth S. James Hughes Richard H. Law Glenn Parsons.
Ronald C. Thaden Howard L. Wolfman Don Wright. Hanna Abdallah William J. Koepfinger Jim Kulchisky Donald N. Newman Robert Nowell T. Satish K. Normative references Bus arrangements Bus Design Considerations Design procedure Corona and Radio Interference Overview of mechanical design of bus structures Loads on bus structure Dimensional, strength and other design considerations Annex A informative Bibliography Annex B informative Rigid bus connector ampacity Annex C informative Thermal considerations for outdus bus-conductor design Annex D informative Corona and substation bus design Annex E informative Physical properties of common bus conductors Annex F informative Calculation example of short circuit analysis on rigid bus systems Annex G informative Calculation example of short circuit analysis on strain bus systems Annex H informative Example rigid bus design Annex I informative Example strain bus design Implementers of the guide are responsible for determining appropriate safety, security, environmental, and health practices or regulatory requirements.
This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. The information in this design guide is applicable to both rigid bus and strain bus designs for outdoor and indoor, air-insulated, alternating current substations.
Ampacity, radio influence, vibration, and electromechanical forces resulting from gravity, wind, fault current, and thermal expansion are considered. Design criteria for conductor and insulator strength calculations are included. Substation rigid and strain bus structure design involves electrical, mechanical, and structural considerations.
It is the purpose of this guide to integrate these considerations into one document. Special considerations are given to fault current force calculations. The factors considered include the decrement of the fault current, the flexibility of supports, and the natural frequency of the bus. The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document i.
For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document including any amendments or corrigenda applies.
ANSI C For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. NOTEA bus support includes one or more insulator units with fittings for fastening to the mounting structure and for receiving the bus. Contrast: convection; radiation. Contrast: conduction; radiation. Contrast: conduction; convection. Youngs modulus: A mechanical property of a material representing its resistance to elongation in the elastic range of deformation.
Specifically, Youngs modulus is the elastic modulus for tension or tensile stress, and it is the force per unit cross section of the material divided by the fractional increase in length resulting from the stretching of a standard rod or wire of the material. Several important factors affect the selection of bus arrangements. These factors include but are not limited to cost, safety, reliability, simplicities of relaying, flexibility of operation, ease of maintenance, available ground area, location of connecting lines, provision for expansion, and appearance.
In general, bus arrangements require disconnect switches to be installed on each side of the breaker to provide a visual opening when a breaker is taken out of service during maintenance or repair. For safety and reliability, the electric clearances must meet appropriate codes and recommendations. Insulation coordination studies should be performed to calculate the voltage levels that result from lightning surge, switching surge, or due to temporary fault conditions.
To improve reliability, the electric connections should be simple; the more complex the connections, the more chances that a faulty condition will occur. Buses are typically arranged to allow access to equipment for maintenance or replacement due to failure or upgrades. In addition, bus arrangements should provide for future growth, including consideration of disconnect switches that allow for continuity of service during construction.
The single bus single breaker arrangement shown in Figure 1 consists of one main bus that contains positions for several circuits. The circuits are normally connected via circuit breakers but can be connected via circuit switchers, which are motor or manually operated switches. The single bus single breaker arrangement is generally applied in substations from distribution voltage through kV to kV and in locations where system reliability is not critical.
The single bus single breaker arrangement is the simplest to operate but offers the least reliability and operational flexibility. A breaker failure or bus fault condition will require the tripping of all breakers connected to the bus causing power loss to all the circuits connected to that bus. To increase the reliability of a single bus single breaker arrangement, a bus-sectionalizing breaker can be installed on the bus, as shown in Figure 1 with dashed lines.
As a result, a bus fault or breaker failure will lead to the loss of only part of the substation. To improve operating flexibility, a normally open bypass circuit may be installed in parallel with the breaker see Figure 1. The bypass may be a switch or fuse, depending on voltage and current levels. When the bypass is closed, the breaker may be taken out of service for maintenance or replacement without disrupting the circuit.
While the breaker is bypassed, the associated protective relays will be disabled, and a fault on the circuit may result in the loss of the entire bus. See Table 1 for the advantages and disadvantages of a single bus single breaker arrangement. The main and transfer bus arrangement is a modification to the single bus arrangement as shown in Figure 2. This arrangement consists of two buses, a main and a transfer. Each circuit bay consists of one breaker and three switches, except the transfer breaker bay, which requires only two switches.
The main bus is normally energized, and all circuits are serviced from the main bus as shown in Figure 2 a. The addition of the transfer bus and transfer breaker allows taking any breaker out of service while the associated circuit remains in service. When a breaker is taken out of service, the transfer breaker and its normally open switches are closed, the circuit breaker and its switches are opened. Figure 2 b shows circuit 1 breaker out of service and circuit 1 serviced by the transfer breaker.
The use of a transfer breaker for more than one circuit requires a selector switch to select the appropriate protective and control scheme. The selector switch arrangement complicates the protective and control schemes, which result in additional work during the initial construction period and operation.
The main and transfer bus arrangement shown in Figure 2 a requires a considerable amount more of bus conductor, insulators, and material for bus and switch mounting structures as compared with the single breaker arrangement Figure 1. This increases the foundation requirements and therefore drives the cost high. See Table 1 for the advantages and disadvantages of a main and transfer bus arrangement.
The double bus single breaker arrangement shown in Figure 3 is a modification of the sectionalized radial single bus. This arrangement consists of two main buses connected together through a circuit breaker.
Each circuit uses a circuit breaker and three disconnect switches and can be connected to either bus through disconnect switches. This arrangement allows all circuits to be connected to one bus in case of an outage on the other bus.
This arrangement is used in areas where high contamination is expected. Buses are taken out of service to clean the insulators. It also allows split bus operation if system conditions require it. A bus tie breaker may be added to increase the system flexibility by allowing split bus operation. A transfer breaker may be added, as shown in Figure 3 b , to allow bypassing a circuit breaker: Additional disconnect allows for connecting circuits 1 or 2 directly to the main bus 1, if a corresponding circuit breaker should be taken out of service.
For example, to spare circuit 1 breaker, we should open all three disconnects adjacent to the breaker and close a normally open. After this is done, circuit 1 may stay in service; it will be switched by a breaker installed between main buses 1 and 2. During this period of time, circuit 2 should be fed from main bus 2; see Table 1 for the advantages and disadvantages of a double bus single breaker arrangement. In the ring bus arrangement, each circuit is connected between two breakers.
The breakers are arranged in a series connection to form the ring. In the ring bus arrangement, one breaker per circuit is possible as shown in Figure 4. The switchyard is normally operated with all breakers in the closed position. Power flow is evenly distributed because the ring bus operates as a single node. By opening selected breakers, any circuit can be removed from service without affecting service to the other lines.
Line disconnect switches are often applied to allow a circuit to be removed from service and to allow the remaining elements to remain in service with the ring partially open. Sources of generation or redundant circuits should not be terminated on adjacent positions of the ring bus; this strategy will prevent a failed circuit breaker from removing two sources of generation or two feeds to the same load from service.
The bus is reduced to connections between equipment; therefore, typically it requires much less bus, insulators, and mounting structures than the other arrangements discussed previously except the single bus single breaker arrangement. The protective and operating schemes are simple compared with the main transfer bus arrangement. Breaker maintenance is easily accomplished without taking a line out of service by opening that breaker and associated disconnect switches.
Portions of the bus can be de-energized, but a circuit would also have to be taken out of service at the same time. Power flow may be restricted during maintenance and emergency operations.
The ring bus arrangement is very reliable when all breakers are closed and the ring is intact. Typically, the breakers on either side of a circuit are opened when the circuit is taken out of service, opening the ring.
Under this scenario, a fault on a second circuit may split the remaining circuits into two isolated operating systems. A similar situation may occur if a single breaker is taken out of service for maintenance. However, with breakers becoming more maintenance free, the ring bus arrangement is becoming more popular.
See Table 1 for the advantages and disadvantages of a ring bus arrangement. The breaker and half bus arrangement shown in Figure 5 consists of two main buses that are normally energized. Three breakers are required to serve two circuits. The middle breaker is common between two circuits and, hence, the name breaker and half bus arrangement. Any breaker or bus can be taken out of service without interruption of service.
Faults on one circuit do not affect the other circuit unless the associated breaker fails to trip. This arrangement is costly due to the number of breakers and switches needed, and it requires a large ground area. This arrangement is used for substations where reliability and service continuity is important. This arrangement is used extensively for voltage levels above kV and some kV substations due to the importance of these substations.
Line switches can be added if required. This bus arrangement, shown in Figure 6, consists of two main buses with two breakers and four switches per circuit. Any breaker or bus can be taken out of service for maintenance without an interruption to service. Split bus operation is possible. This bus arrangement is considered to be the most reliable. This arrangement requires a large ground area.
It is the most expensive one because it requires the most equipment per circuit. This bus arrangement requires a considerable amount of material for mounting structures.
Low reliability Bus or breaker fault causes loss of entire station Breaker maintenance requires the associated circuit outage.
Low reliability Bus or breaker fault causes loss of entire station Increased complexity over single bus Complex protective scheme Large land area required. DBSB Allows for outage on any one of the buses Increased flexibility over single bus May allow for breaker maintenance. Low reliability Bus or breaker fault causes loss of entire station Increased complexity over single bus High cost Very large land area required. RB High reliability Flexible operation Allows for breaker maintenance Bus fault does not affect continuity of operation.
Extensive relaying and control schemes Breaker failure results in loss of two circuits Large land area required May split into two operating systems. DBDB Easy to expand Very high reliability Very flexible operation Allows for breaker maintenance Bus fault does not affect continuity of operation Breaker failure results in loss of only one circuit. NOTE 7Unit costs used in this table to obtain estimates for each arrangements are installed costs, including cost of equipment, foundation, steel, design, engineering, construction supervision, control circuits, and so on.
Today, several types of bus systems are used in substations: rigid bus, strain flexible bus, and gas-insulated bus. The rigid bus is a common type of bus system in use in North America. The strain conductor bus is often used in high- and extra-high-voltage substations kV and higher where either high-capacity or increased seismic withstand capability is required, and the area is available. The gas-insulated bus is suitable for unique environmental or space-constrained applications.
Also, it is used in urban and industrial locations subject to space constraints and pollution, mountainous areas extra site preparation, altitude, snow, and ice concerns , coastal areas salt associated problems , underground substations, and areas where aesthetics are major concerns. Prior to the start of a bus design, several design conditions need consideration. These design conditions shall establish the minimum electrical and structural requirements for the type of bus being considered.
Preliminary design considerations are as follows:. In addition to these preliminary design considerations, the local public may have input concerning the noise and aesthetics of the substation and surrounding area. The bus design can begin after all of the design conditions are firmly established and the bus arrangement has been determined.
Several factors must be considered to determine the appropriate bus arrangement for a substation. These factors may include the following:.
The box structure is generally applied at kV and below. It requires the least amount of land area and uses layers of bus, disconnect switches, and related equipment, one above the other, connected with vertical bus runs and supported on a common structure.
Rigid or strain bus can be used.
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