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Usually, volumes are numbered sequentially, while the numbering of issues starts over with 1 in each new volume. Other journals do not use volume numbers but instead number all the issues in sequence. Kafka, Ben. Comic books are commonly numbered like journals�for instance, with issue numbers.
The seasons of a television series are typically numbered in sequence, as are the episodes in a season. Both numbers should be recorded in the works-cited list if available. If your source uses another numbering system, include the number in your entry, preceded by a term that identifies the kind of division the number refers to.
But if one of the organizations had primary responsibility for the work, cite it alone. To determine the publisher of a book, look first on the title page. Lessig, Lawrence. Penguin Press, Films and television series are often produced and distributed by several companies performing different tasks.
When documenting a work in film or television, you should generally cite the organization that had the primary overall responsibility for it. Kuzui, Fran Rubel, director. Twentieth Century Fox, Web sites are published by various kinds of organizations, including museums, libraries, and universities and their departments. A blog network may be considered the publisher of the blogs it hosts.
Clancy, Kate. A periodical journal, magazine, newspaper A work published by its author or editor A Web site whose title is essentially the same as the name of its publisher A Web site not involved in producing the works it makes available e.
If the contents of the site are organized into a whole, as the contents of YouTube, JSTOR, and ProQuest are, the site is named earlier as a container, but it still does not qualify as a publisher of the source. Sources�especially those published online�may be associated with more than one publication date. For instance, an article collected in a book may be accompanied by a note saying that the article appeared years earlier in a journal. A work online may have been published previously in another medium as a book, a broadcast television program, a record album, etc.
When a source carries more than one date, cite the date that is most meaningful or most relevant to your use of the source. For example, if you consult an article on the Web site of a news organization that also publishes its articles in print, the date of online publication may appear at the site along with the date when the article appeared in print.
Since you consulted only the online version of the article, ignore the date of the print publication. Deresiewicz, William. A reader of the print version would find only one date of publication in the source and would produce the following entry.
Whether to give the year alone or to include a month and day usually depends on your source: write the full date as you find it there. Occasionally, you must decide how full the cited date will be. For instance, if you are documenting an episode of a television series, the year of its original release may suffice.
However, if you are discussing, say, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you may want to supply the month and day along with the year. In the below version, the container title is that of the DVD set. In this version, the container title is that of the DVD set. An entry for a video on a Web site includes the date when the video was posted there. The above example omits the creator, the performer, and other facts about the series because they are not stated in this source.
Many kinds of articles on the Web plainly carry dates of publication. Comments posted on Web pages are usually dated. If an article, a comment, or another source on the Web includes a time when the work was posted or last modified, include the time along with the date.
When you document a Web project as a whole, cite a range of dates if the project was developed over time. Eaves, Morris, et al. The William Blake Archive. An issue of a periodical journal, magazine, newspaper usually carries a date on its cover or title page. Periodicals vary in their publication schedules: issues may appear every year, season, month, week, or day.
Belton, John. If more than one date appears on the copyright page, select the most recent one see fig. Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage Books, The second and later editions of a book may contain the dates of all the editions. Cite the date of the edition you used, normally the date on the title page or the last date listed on the copyright page. Do not take the publication dates of books from an outside resource�such as a bibliography, an online catalog, or a bookseller like Amazon�since the information there may be inaccurate see fig.
The copyright page of a book. There is no publication date on the title page of this book. In print sources a page number preceded by p. Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. Knopf, , pp. The listing for a book in an online database above and the title page of the book below. The book was published in , but the database incorrectly shows as the publication date. Publication facts should be taken from the work itself, not from another source.
The location of an online work is commonly indicated by its URL, or Web address. Visualizing Emancipation. Directed by Scott Nesbit and Edward L. Ayers, dsl. Even an outdated URL can be useful, however, since it provides readers with information about where the work was once found. Moreover, in digital formats URLs may be clickable, connecting your reader directly to your sources.
We therefore recommend the inclusion of URLs in the works-cited list, but if your instructor prefers that you not include them, follow his or her directions. The publisher of a work on the Web can change its URL at any time. If your source offers URLs that it says are stable sometimes called permalinks , use them in your entry see fig.
Some publishers assign DOIs, or digital object identifiers, to their online publications. Chan, Evans. Project Muse, doi A physical object that you experienced firsthand not in a reproduction , such as a work of art in a museum or an artifact in an archive, is located in a place, commonly an institution.
Bearden, Romare. The Train. The stable URL of a Web page. The location of an object in an archive may also include a number or other code that the archive uses to identify the object.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. Atwood, Margaret. Some of the optional elements are added to the end of the entry, while others are placed in the middle, after core elements that they relate to.
Your decision whether to include optional elements depends on their importance to your use of the source. Franklin, Benjamin. Vance, Faber and Faber, , pp. City of Publication The traditional practice of citing the city where the publisher of a book was located usually serves little purpose today. There remain a few circumstances in which the city of publication might matter, however. Books published before are conventionally associated with their cities of publication.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret. Translated by John Oxenford, new ed. In addition, a publisher with offices in more than one country may release a novel in two versions�perhaps with different spelling and vocabulary. If you read an unexpected version of a text such as the British edition when you are in the United States , stating the city of publication will help your readers understand your source.
Place the name of the city before that of the publisher. Rowling, J. London, Bloomsbury, Finally, include the city of publication whenever it might help a reader locate a text released by an unfamiliar publisher located outside North America.
Other Facts about the Source There may be other information that will help your reader track down the original source. You might, for instance, include the total number of volumes in a multivolume publication. Caro, Robert A. The Passage of Power. The Years of Lyndon Johnson, vol. If the title page or a preceding page indicates that a book you are documenting is part of a series, you might include the series name, neither italicized nor enclosed in quotation marks, and the number of the book if any in the series.
Kuhnheim, Jill S. Anderson and Kuhnheim, MLA, , pp. Teaching Languages, Literatures, and Cultures. Canto General. Latin American Literature and Culture 7. If the source is an unexpected type of work, you may identify the type with a descriptive term.
For instance, if you studied a radio broadcast by reading its transcript, the term Transcript will indicate that you did not listen to the broadcast. Fresh Air. Similarly, a lecture or other address heard in person may be indicated as such. When a source was previously published in a form other than the one in which you consulted it, you might include information about the prior publication.
Johnson, Barbara. Originally published in Diacritics, vol. Government Printing Office, Date of Access Since online works typically can be changed or removed at any time, the date on which you accessed online material is often an important indicator of the version you consulted.
Accessed 23 July The date of access is especially crucial if the source provides no date specifying when it was produced or published. This list of optional elements is not exhaustive. You should carefully consider the source you are documenting and judge whether other kinds of information might help your reader.
In-Text Citations The second major component of MLA documentation style is the insertion in your text of a brief reference that indicates the source you consulted.
The in-text citation should direct the reader unambiguously to the entry in your works-cited list for the source�and, if possible, to a passage in the source� while creating the least possible interruption in your text. The page number goes in a parenthesis, which is placed, when possible, where there is a natural pause in the text.
A parenthetical citation that directly follows a quotation is placed after the closing quotation mark. One might even suggest that reading is never complete without writing. Work Cited Baron, Naomi S. A reader interested in your source can flip to the indicated entry in your list of works cited; a reader not interested in the source can pass over the citation without being distracted. Rarely should the page number be mentioned in the text e.
When a quotation, whether of prose or poetry, is so long that it is set off from the text, type a space after the concluding punctuation mark of the quotation and insert the parenthetical citation. The simplest is to make parts of a text prominent by underlining, highlighting, or adding asterisks, lines, or squiggles. Morereflective responses are notes written in the margins or in an external location�a notebook or a computer file. If you borrow from works by more than one author with the same last name e.
Baron The title may appear in the text itself or, abbreviated, before the parenthesis. Research Division Report If your source uses explicit paragraph numbers rather than page numbers�as some publications on the Web do�give the relevant number or numbers, preceded by the label par. When a source has no page numbers or any other kind of part number, no number should be given in a parenthetical citation.
Do not count unnumbered paragraphs or other parts. For works in time-based media, such as audio and video recordings, cite the relevant time or range of times. Give the numbers of the hours, minutes, and seconds as displayed in your media player, separating the numbers with colons.
Identifying the source in your text is essential for nearly every kind of borrowing�not only quotations but also facts and paraphrased ideas.
The only exception is common knowledge. While reading may be the core of literacy, Naomi Baron argues that literacy can be complete only when reading is accompanied by writing The second version above is usually preferable when a single fact or paraphrased idea is attributable to more than one source. List all the sources in the parenthetical citation, separating them with semicolons. While reading may be the core of literacy, literacy can be complete only when reading is accompanied by writing Baron ; Jacobs Remember that the goal of the in-text citation is to provide enough information to lead your reader directly to the source you used while disrupting the flow of your argument as little as possible.
While this mode of citation provides a great deal of flexibility, it nonetheless requires that writers be consistent to avoid confusing the reader. In part 2, accordingly, we address the role of consistency by shifting our emphasis from the descriptive to the prescriptive, first offering recommendations about the mechanics of prose in a research project and then discussing advanced aspects of the works-cited list and in-text citations in MLA style.
Finally, part 2 considers citations in projects other than the research paper. Following are some of the conventions commonly accepted in scholarly writing. Write the name accurately, exactly as it appears in your source or in a reference work. Victoria M. In subsequent uses, you may refer to a person by his or her family name only unless, of course, you refer to two or more persons with the same family name.
Family names are treated differently in different languages. Similarly, a title should usually not be included when the name is mentioned in the text discussion. You need not always use their full names, and you may retain titles as appropriate Dr.
Jekyll, Madame Defarge. Since the name is not reversed, no comma is added to it. When the author of a work in English has a Chinese, Japanese, Korean, or Vietnamese name, the name might appear on the publication with the family name first or last. The following examples are names of writers as they might appear in the source. Various systems of romanization have been devised for most of these languages. For example, the Wade-Giles system was once widely used for Chinese, but pinyin, the official romanization system in mainland China, is now standard among English speakers.
In your sources, you may find the same Chinese names written in both systems�for instance, Mao Tse-tung Wade-Giles and Mao Zedong pinyin. The pinyin forms are preferable, but the names of a few historical figures remain better known in older spellings, which may appear in reference works e. French French de following a first name or a title such as Mme or duc is usually not treated as part of the last name.
De Quincey, Thomas German German von is generally not treated as part of the last name. Dante Alighieri But other names of the period follow the standard practice. Boccaccio, Giovanni The names of members of historic families are also usually alphabetized by last name.
You may include the full name in a parenthesis in the workscited list. Madariaga, Salvador de Rueda, Lope de Timoneda, Juan de Spanish del, however, which is formed from the fusion of the preposition de and the definite article el, is capitalized and used with the last name. Consult a biographical dictionary for guidance in distinguishing surnames and given names. Copy the title without reproducing any unusual typography, such as special capitalization or lowercasing of all letters.
Therefore, capitalize following parts of speech: the Nouns e. Adjectives e. Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless the title ends in a question mark or an exclamation point. Include other punctuation only if it is part of the title or subtitle. In general, italicize the titles of sources that are self-contained and independent e. Names in the following categories are capitalized like titles but are not italicized or enclosed in quotation marks.
For instance, when commenting on a case named NLRB v. Yeshiva University involving the National Labor Relations Board, a federal agency , scholars are likely to use Yeshiva as a short title. Thus, if you follow the standard practice of using Yeshiva in your text discussion, you will need to include NLRB in your parenthetical citation.
In a title or a subtitle, capitalize only the first word and all words normally capitalized. In the title or subtitle of a classical or medieval work, however, capitalize only the first word and all words normally capitalized. De senectute Pro Marcello Titles of postmedieval works in Latin are often capitalized like English titles.
In a romanized title or subtitle, capitalize the first word and any words that would be capitalized in English prose. Other Languages When you copy a title or a subtitle in nearly any language using the Latin alphabet not discussed above, it is appropriate to capitalize only the first word and all words capitalized in regular prose in the same work. Quote only words, phrases, lines, and passages that are particularly apt, and keep all quotations as brief as possible.
Your project should be about your own ideas, and quotations should merely help you explain or illustrate them.
The accuracy of quotations is crucial. They must reproduce the original sources exactly. You must construct a clear, grammatically correct sentence that allows you to introduce or incorporate a quotation with complete accuracy. Alternatively, you may paraphrase the original and quote only fragments, which may be easier to integrate into the flow of your writing.
If you change a quotation in any way, make the alteration clear to the reader by following the rules and recommendations below.
You need not always reproduce complete sentences. Sometimes you may want to quote just a word or phrase as part of your sentence. Not every sentence with borrowed material has to contain a citation. Some sources especially online publications lack page numbers or fixed part numbers and so offer no numbers to be cited. You may put a quotation at the beginning, middle, or end of your sentence or, for the sake of variety or better style, divide it by your own words. If a quotation extends to more than four lines when run into your text, set it off from the text as a block indented half an inch from the left margin.
Do not indent the first line an extra amount or add quotation marks not present in the original. A colon introduces a quotation displayed in this way except when the grammatical connection between your introductory wording and the quotation requires a different mark of punctuation or none at all.
A parenthetical reference for a prose quotation set off from the text follows the last line of the quotation. At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph, realizing the horror of his actions, is overcome by great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body.
His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. In Moll Flanders Defoe follows the picaresque tradition by using a pseudoautobiographical narration: My true name is so well known in the records, or registers, at Newgate and in the Old Bailey, and there are some things of such consequence still depending there relating to my particular conduct, that it is not to be expected I should set my name or the account of my family to this work.
It is enough to tell you, that. Unless the quotation involves unusual spacing, indent it half an inch from the left margin.
Do not add quotation marks not present in the original. The in-text citation for a verse quotation set off from the text in this way, if required, follows the last line of the quotation as it does with prose quotations. If the citation will not fit on the same line as the end of the quotation, it should appear on a new line, flush with the right margin of the page. A line too long to fit within the right margin should be formatted with hanging indention, so that its continuation is indented more than the rest of the block.
If the layout of the lines in the original text, including indention and spacing within and between them, is unusual, reproduce it as accurately as possible.
When a verse quotation begins in the middle of a line, the partial line should be positioned where it is in the original and not shifted to the left margin. Follow the name with a period and then start the quotation. When the dialogue shifts to another character, start a new line indented half an inch. Maintain this pattern throughout the entire quotation. A quotation should never be presented in a way that could cause a reader to misunderstand the sentence structure of the original source.
If the fact that you omitted material from a sentence or series of sentences is not obvious, you must mark the omission with ellipsis points, or three spaced periods.
When you quote only a word or phrase, no ellipsis points are needed before or after the quotation because it is obvious that you left out some of the original sentence. In his inaugural address, John F. An omission in the middle of a quotation always requires an ellipsis. Whenever you omit words from a quotation, the resulting passage�your prose and the quotation integrated into it�should be grammatically complete and correct. Omission within a Sentence Identify an omission within a sentence by using three periods with a space before each and a space after the last.
Original Medical thinking, trapped in the theory of astral influences, stressed air as the communicator of disease, ignoring sanitation or visible carriers. From Barbara W. When the ellipsis coincides with the end of your sentence, place a period after the last word of the quotation and then add three periods with a space before each. Omission in a Quotation of More Than One Sentence An ellipsis in the middle of a quotation can indicate the omission of any amount of text.
Original Presidential control reached its zenith under Andrew Jackson, the extent of whose attention to the press even before he became a candidate is suggested by the fact that he subscribed to twenty newspapers. Jackson was never content to have only one organ grinding out his tune. For a time, the United States Telegraph and the Washington Globe were almost equally favored as party organs, and there were fifty-seven journalists on the government payroll.
From William L. Rivers notes: Presidential control reached its zenith under Andrew Jackson, the extent of whose attention to the press even before he became a candidate is suggested by the fact that he subscribed to twenty newspapers. Omission in a Quotation of Poetry Use three or four spaced periods in quotations of poetry, as in quotations of prose.
The omission of a line or more in the middle of a poetry quotation that is set off from the text is indicated by a line of spaced periods approximately the length of a complete line of the quoted poem. You do not need to indicate that more material appears on the line in the original. An Ellipsis in the Source If the author you are quoting uses ellipsis points, you should distinguish them from your ellipses by putting square brackets around the ones you add or by including an explanatory phrase in a parenthesis after the quotation.
This is beautiful country; I have never been here before. This is beautiful country [. This is beautiful country. You may also italicize words for emphasis. Keep such alterations to a minimum and distinguish them from the original. A comment or an explanation that immediately follows the closing quotation mark appears in a parenthesis. A comment or an explanation that goes inside the quotation must appear within square brackets.
Do not use opening and closing quotation marks to enclose quotations set off from the text, but reproduce any quotation marks that are in the passage quoted. Use double quotation marks around quotations incorporated into the text and single quotation marks around quotations within those quotations. When a quotation consists entirely of material enclosed by quotation marks in the source work, usually one pair of double quotation marks is sufficient, provided that the introductory wording makes clear the special character of the quoted material.
Except for changing internal double quotation marks to single ones when you incorporate quotations into your text, you should reproduce internal punctuation exactly as in the original. The closing punctuation, though, depends on where the quoted material appears in your sentence. If the quotation ends with a question mark or an exclamation point, however, the original punctuation is retained, and no comma is required. By convention, commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks.
When a quotation is directly followed by a parenthetical citation, however, any required comma or period follows the citation. Thus, if a quotation ends with a period and falls at the end of your sentence, the period appears after the reference.
If a quotation ends with both single and double quotation marks, the comma or period precedes both. All other punctuation marks�such as semicolons, colons, question marks, and exclamation points�go outside a closing quotation mark, except when they are part of the quoted material. Original Have you felt so proud to get at the meaning of poems? Give the source of the translation in addition to the source of the quotation.
In general, the translation should immediately follow the quotation whether the two passages are incorporated into or set off from the text, although the order may be reversed if it is unlikely that readers will be able to read the original. If the pair of passages are incorporated into the text, distinguish them from each other by placing the second one in double quotation marks and parentheses or in single quotation marks and not in parentheses. Separate elements in parentheses with semicolons.
If you created the translation, insert my trans. If your project includes many translations that you created, it may be more convenient to introduce an endnote describing which translations are yours.
The endnote would be located immediately after your first translation. Then my trans. Do not use quotation marks around quotations and translations set off from the text. Names of persons, places, and organizations, however, are usually romanized. Genesis 6. To form the plural of a spelled-out number, treat the word like an ordinary noun sixes, sevens. If your project calls for frequent use of numbers, use numerals for all numbers that precede technical units of measurement 30 inches, 5 kilograms.
In such a project, also use numerals for numbers that are presented together and that refer to similar things, such as in comparisons or reports of experimental data. Spell out other numbers if they can be written in one or two words. Large numbers may be expressed in a combination of numerals and words 4. Use numerals with abbreviations or symbols 6 lbs. When a numeral falls at the start of a sentence, either spell out the number if doing so is not awkward or revise the sentence to place the numeral later in it.
Otherwise, write both years in full. Do not abbreviate ranges of years that begin before AD 1. Elizabeth II John D. Rockefeller IV Use lowercase roman numerals for citing pages of a book that are so numbered e. Write out inclusive roman numerals in full: xxv�xxvi, xlvi�xlix.
In the latter style, the comma before the year has to be balanced by one after if there is no other punctuation after the year. In the list of works cited, use the daymonth-year style 12 Jan. Months may be abbreviated. When times are available, include them as well. Times should be expressed consistently in either the twelve-hour or the twenty-four-hour clock. Include time zone information when provided.
Uncertain dates are usually indicated by a question mark. Dickinson, Emily. Dates that are only generally known may be described; use lowercase words rather than numerals to designate a century. Though lowercase in the body of your writing, seasons of the year are capitalized when part of a publication date in the works-cited list. If you use abbreviations, always choose accepted forms.
While economy of space is important, clarity is more so. Spell out a term if the abbreviation may puzzle your readers. Use neither periods after letters nor spaces between letters for abbreviations made up predominantly of capital letters. JFK J. Tolkien Most abbreviations that end in lowercase letters are followed by periods. In most abbreviations made up of lowercase letters that each represent a word, a period follows each letter, but no space intervenes between letters. Where confusion may result, spell out the words instead.
The plurals of the noun abbreviations given here other than p. Because the books of the Bible and works of Shakespeare are cited often, there are well-established abbreviations for their titles. Bible The following abbreviations and spelled forms are commonly used for parts of the Bible which may be abbreviated as Bib.
Daniel Deut. Deuteronomy Eccles. Ecclesiastes also called Qoheleth Esth. Esther Exod. Exodus Ezek. Genesis Hab. Habakkuk Hag. Haggai Hos. Hosea Isa. Isaiah Jer. Jonah Josh. Joshua Judg. Lamentations Lev. Leviticus Mal. Malachi Mic. Micah Nah. Nahum Neh. Nehemiah Num.
Numbers Obad. Obadiah Prov. Proverbs Ps. Psalms Qoh. Zechariah Zeph. Apocalypse also called Revelation Col. Colossians 1 Cor. Ephesians Gal. Galatians Heb. Hebrews Jas. Matthew 1 Pet. Philippians Philem. Philemon Rev. Revelation also called Apocalypse Rom. Romans 1 Thess. Titus Selected Apocrypha Bar. Baruch Bel and Dr. Bel and the Dragon Ecclus. Ecclesiasticus also called Sirach 1 Esd. Esther Apocrypha Jth. Judith 1 Macc. Prayer of Manasseh Sg. Song of Three Children Sir.
Sirach also called Ecclesiasticus Sus. Susanna Tob. Tobit Wisd. Wisdom also called Wisdom of Solomon Wisd. Coriolanus Cym. Cymbeline Err. King Lear Luc. The Rape of Lucrece Mac. Othello Per. Romeo and Juliet Shr. The Taming of the Shrew Son. Timon of Athens Tit. Titus Andronicus Tmp. Troilus and Cressida Ven. Venus and Adonis Wiv. A pseudonym that does not take the traditional form should be given unchanged. Film Crit Hulk Tribble, Ivan If you know the real name of an author listed under a pseudonym, you may add it in a parenthesis.
Adding the real name is not essential for famous pseudonyms, like George Eliot, Stendhal, and Mark Twain, but may be useful for less familiar pseudonyms and is particularly desirable for online usernames.
Benton, Thomas H. Bakhtin, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. Translated by Ladislav Matejka and I.
Titunik, Harvard UP, Penelope, Julia see also Stanley, Julia P. Stanley, Julia P. In Source Work Anthony T.
Rockefeller, John D. Do not include The before the name of any organization in the workscited list. When an entry starts with a government agency as the author, begin the entry with the name of the government, followed by a comma and the name of the agency. Between them, name any organizational units of which the agency is part as, e.
All the names are arranged from the largest entity to the smallest. California, Department of Industrial Relations United States, Congress, House If you are documenting two or more works by the same government, substitute three hyphens for any name repeated from the author in the previous entry. United States, Congress, House. Below are sample government publications. Centre on Transnational Corporations, United Nations, Investigation of the New York State Prisons.
Arno Press, At the end of entries for congressional publications, you may optionally include the number and session of Congress, the chamber Senate or House of Representatives , and the type and number of the publication. Types of congressional publications include bills, resolutions, reports, and documents. If your project involves the use of many congressional publications, consult The Chicago Manual of Style for specialized guidelines on documenting them.
Poore, Benjamin Perley, compiler. Felstiner, John. Norton, , pp. Wallach, Rick. Then the unique title or a short version of it is given in an in-text citation if a title is needed. By contrast, names like Authorized King James Version and Norton Critical Edition are proper nouns names of unique things and are therefore capitalized like titles. Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Norton, The examples on pages �09 show how you can use evidence on the title page to determine the publisher.
Determining the Publisher of a Book Copublishers If more than one independent organization is identified in the source as the publisher, cite all the names, following the order shown in the source and separating the names with a forward slash.
The wording and design on the title page may help you identify imprints. Only the name of the division should be cited. Vintage Books 2. Avoid citing URLs produced by shortening services like bit. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs, or digital object identifiers.
DOIs consist of a series of digits and sometimes letters , such as Periods are used after the author, after the title of the source, and at the end of the information for each container. The Star-Ledger [Newark] You need not add the city of publication to the name of a nationally published newspaper e. Tomlinson, Janis A. Goya: Images of Women. In other forms of academic work, the list may appear elsewhere.
This format, called hanging indention, helps the reader spot the beginning of each entry. When the creation of hanging indention is difficult �in certain digital contexts, for instance �leaving extra space between entries will serve the same purpose. Other punctuation marks and spaces are ignored. The letters following the commas are considered only when two or more last names are identical. Special characters, such as in an online username, are also ignored.
Thereafter, in place of the name, type three hyphens. They stand for exactly the same name as in the preceding entry. If the same person performed such a role for two or more listed works, a suitable label for that role must appear in each entry. Borroff, Marie.
U of Chicago P, Pearl: A New Verse Translation. Prentice-Hall, If a single author cited in one entry is also the first of multiple authors in the next entry, repeat the name in full; do not substitute three hyphens. Repeat the name in full whenever you cite the same person as part of a different team of authors.
Tannen, Deborah. Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics Understanding Mothers and Daughters in Conversation. Ballantine Books, Tannen, Deborah, and Roy O. Freedle, editors. Linguistics in Context: Connecting Observation and Understanding. Ablex Publishing, Tannen, Deborah, and Muriel Saville-Troike, editors. Perspectives on Silence. Rabkin To document two or more works by the same coauthors whose names appear in a consistent order in the works, give the names in the first entry only.
Thereafter, in place of the names, type three hyphens, followed by a period and the title. The three hyphens stand for exactly the same names, in the same order, as in the preceding entry. Gilbert, Sandra M. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, If the title begins with a numeral, alphabetize the title as if the numeral were spelled out. Agee, James. Angelou, Maya. Atwan, Robert. Oates and Atwan, pp. Baker, Russell, editor. The Norton Book of Light Verse.
Hurston, Zora Neale. Kingston, Maxine Hong. Lebowitz, Fran. Lennon, John. Oates, Joyce Carol, and Robert Atwan, editors. The Best American Essays of the Century. Houghton Mifflin, Rodriguez, Richard. Walker, Alice. Following are special situations not covered in part 1. The in-text citation follows suit. Burdick et al. If the corporate author is identified in the works-cited list by the names of administrative units separated by commas, give all the names in the parenthetical citation.
Child Care: A Workforce Issue. The abbreviated title should begin with the word by which the title is alphabetized. If possible, give the first noun and any preceding adjectives, while excluding any initial article: a, an, the. The descriptive term should be capitalized exactly as in the works-cited list and be neither italicized nor enclosed in quotation marks. Margaret Drabble describes how publishers sometimes pressured Lessing to cut controversial details from her work�or to add them Introduction xi-xii.
Works Cited Drabble, Margaret. Stories, by Doris Lessing, Alfred A. The Millstone. Harcourt Brace, Werner, Marta L. American Literature, vol. Use arabic numerals in all your other references to divisions of works volumes, sections, books, chapters, acts, scenes, etc. If you borrow from more than one volume, include a volume number as well as a page reference in the in-text citations, separating the two with a colon and a space. Use neither the words volume and page nor their abbreviations.
The MLA is developing additional publications to address the professional needs of scholars. Click here to Download PDF. Facebook Twitter. Social Plugin. Popular Posts. Progress by St. Subscribe Us. Random Posts. Recent in Poetry. Menu Footer Widget.
|How to download windows 10 version 21h1||The Norton Book of Light Verse. Kafka, Ben. Journal issues are typically numbered. David Boring. You might also offer printed copies of your works-cited list to your audience, if the venue of the presentation allows for them, or post the list online and include its URL on your works-cited slide.|
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|Mla handbook 8th edition pdf free download||Judith 1 Macc. The references are formatted in a standard way so that they can be quickly understood and used by all, like a common language. MLA, Story, Poem, or Article in a Book or in a Periodical Consult the first page of the editino for the author and title of the work. Your use of MLA style should be guided by these principles: Cite simple traits shared by most read more.|
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|Call center ppt templates free download||The functions visit web page the numbers in such a citation are understood. Does the author draw on appropriate research and make a logical argument? As you write, carefully identify all borrowed material, including quoted words and phrases, paraphrased ideas, summarized arguments, and facts and other information. You should carefully consider the source you are documenting and judge whether other kinds of information might help your reader. Not every sentence with borrowed material has to contain a citation. The Red and the Black. All the names exition arranged from the largest entity hadbook the smallest.|
|Ipa keyboard download windows 10||Lamentations Lev. Sirach also called Ecclesiasticus Sus. Quotation marks. Othello Per. Designed in consultation with students, teachers, and researchers, this edition gives users more freedom to create references to fit their audiences. Subsequent citations of the same edition may provide division numbers alone.|
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|Mla handbook 8th edition pdf free download||The Best Do 160g pdf free download Essays of the Century. Repeat the name in full whenever you cite the same person as part of a handook team of authors. Identify such a contributor after the title of the source rather than after that of the collection. Esther Apocrypha Jth. Follow the name with a period and then start the quotation. The book was published inbut the database incorrectly shows as the publication date. If you change a wdition in any way, make the alteration clear to the reader by following the rules https://kbijsetupdownload.com/canon-raw-software-download/6857-crime-city-game-download-for-pc.php recommendations below.|
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WebDec 15, �� opensource Language English Description retrieved from the Modern Language Association website at: . Web1 MLA STYLE, 8th Edition MLA style is the set of conventions for formatting papers and citations in most disciplines in the humanities. This guide outlines some of the basics, but . WebDownload Mla Handbook 8th kbijsetupdownload.com Type: PDF Date: October Size: MB Author: rick really This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they .