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The RDAs, and other similar government nutrition standards found worldwide, are primarily concerned with preventing diseases that result from essential nutrient deficiencies like scurvy from the lack of vitamin C. These government-based guidelines are not aimed at achieving optimum health. In fact, most of the RDA values are based on the average nutrient intakes of our entire population. But, as mentioned earlier, the National Research Council has determined that the majority of people are eating poor diets.

In fact, the typical American diet is responsible for causing diseases and the deaths of millions of people each year. Thus you see right from the start that the RDA system is not meant to promote optimum health. A short run through the RDA story will demonstrate this point. To begin with, the following nine nutrients were the only ones with RDAs first established by Protein 6.

Riboflavin 2. Vitamin A 7. Niacin 3. Vitamin D 8. Calcium 4. Vitamin C 9. Iron 5. However, this system provides no reliable assurance that people are getting the nutrition needed for optimum health and certainly has limitations for athletes. In the new DRI system, it was recognized more than ever that although nutrient requirement data on the population level are important, better determining the nutrition requirements of the individual is even more important, including how nutrition requirements change during the different stages of life.

The DRIs represent a more complete set of values. They were developed in recognition of the growing and diverse uses of quantitative reference values and the availability of more sophisticated approaches for dietary planning and assessment purposes.

The DRIs represent the most current scientific knowledge on nutrient needs of healthy populations. Please note that individual requirements may be higher or lower than the DRIs.

Workshop Summary As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase. The AMDR is expressed as a percentage of total energy intake. A principal feature of each AMDR is that it has a lower and upper boundary.

For example, the AMDR for carbohydrates ranges from 45 to 65 percent of total energy intake. Intakes that fall below or above this range increase the potential for an elevated risk of chronic diseases. Intakes outside of the range also raise the risk of inadequate consumption of essential nutrients. But also note that there is additional terminology for food and supplement labeling, presented in Unit The focus is not necessarily to achieve optimum nutrition.

Thanks to the developing health industry, however, the past few decades have fostered a nutrition revolution that promotes a diet that is rich in all nutrients, in greater amounts than previously recommended. Finally, we are looking at an integrated nutrition approach. Lieberman is one of the nutritional pioneers who coined the term ODA Optimum Daily Allowance to indicate that we require higher amounts of vitamins and minerals than those identified in the RDAs and more of the nonessential nutrients and herbal factors as well.

There are many reasons for this greater need, including that our bodies are faced with warding off a host of environmental stresses, such as air pollution, poor quality or contaminated drinking water, pesticides, additives, and other non-nutritive toxins. Furthermore, our food supply does not provide the proper amounts of nutrients for optimum health. Research is finding new uses for nutrients besides their role in basic survival. For example, a group of vitamin and mineral nutrients called the antioxidants has been found to protect the body from the wear and tear caused by free radicals.

Sports Nutrition: The Vital Link to Supercharging Athletic Performance 21 Free radicals are formed naturally in the body, and higher amounts of free radicals are caused by increased physical activity, exposure sunlight, and exposure to everyday chemicals. This means that athletic people need to reduce the amount of free radical damage to their bodies by taking nutrients with antioxidant activity.

This will stimulate quicker recovery and more rapid movements in performance. As it turns out, although some of the essential nutrients, like vitamins E and C are important antioxidants, the most recent research has determined that it is groups of chemicals from plants that are turning out to be even more potent and important antioxidants. In recent DRI Reports, it seems that the ODA approach is now being acknowledged, in particular when presenting information related to individual nutrition programs, with essential nutrient intake being between the lower limit and below the ULs.

Essential Nutrition for Athletic Performance Essential nutrition for athletic performance is the most recent advancement in the field of nutrition. Sports and fitness scientists make new discoveries daily, uncovering the intimate connection between nutrition, athletic performance, and fitness. Eating for maximum athletic performance includes eating foods for maintenance of optimum health plus extra nutrients to achieve peak athletic performance and to compensate for the increased caloric and essential nutrient requirements associated with athletic training and competition.

Peak athletic performance includes being your best 24 hours a day. This means having the energy to sustain workouts or competitions along with the proper nutrition for recovery and rest and superior health. These guidelines provide safe and efficacious nutrition information based on research and a vast review of the reference publications on nutrition.

The PDIs for each nutrient should be obtained from a total nutrition plan, consisting of both food and supplement sources taken together. Therefore you can expect that food sources alone will not provide or will just barely provide the lower amount of the PDI range.

To ensure that adequate levels of nutrients are maintained each day, you may need to use dietary supplements. The PDI ranges for each nutrient reflect the different needs of individuals based on their size and activity level. Smaller or less active individuals therefore target their nutrient intake at the lower end of the range, whereas larger and more active individuals follow intake levels on the upper end of the range.

Always consult the specific detailed sections on each nutrient for comprehensive guidelines and information about each nutrient. Sports Nutrition The PDI summary chart for vitamins and minerals is presented in Units 7 and 8, which also contain other reference values for comparison. Note that too often individuals take too much of a few supplements and not enough of many of the essential vitamins and minerals.

Remember, all are important, and there is no magic pill. We now know that for peak performance and fitness, you must consume certain foods before and after exercise to yield optimum results. Breakfast will be different from dinner. Meals will vary from day to day depending on your activity level. The powerlifter will eat differently than the basketball player does. The proportions of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and cofactors must match the metabolic needs all day long to achieve peak performance.

This requires knowledge about unique individual metabolic demands. Body type, type of sport or fitness program, training, activity level, and body composition all determine what custom fuel mix is required. Meal timing and nutrient composition is also important to achieve optimum performance and fitness nutrition. Sports Nutrition: The Vital Link to Supercharging Athletic Performance 23 Regarding the nutrients themselves found in food and supplements, there are dietary intake issues based on both sides of the dietary intake equation; inadequate consumption not enough and overconsumption too much.

In general, foods and supplements have an excellent safety record. When you review effectiveness and safety issues, the point is to establish a performance-enhancing range of effective intake for nutrients and related substances so that you will ingest enough to make a positive difference, but not excessive amounts that might not provide any extra benefits or may possibly develop rare, but unwanted side effects from this overconsumption. Risk of Inadequacy This phenomenon may be new to some people, one in which an essential nutrient is vital to 1.

As the following reference chart below illustrates, when nutrient intake levels are low to the left , nutrient deficiency diseases or conditions can develop. When nutrient intake is too high to the right , the risk of potential nutrient overconsumptionrelated side effects may occur.

Theoretically, the nutrient intake zone between the lowest level and the highest level is the optimum health zone and athletic performance intake zone. UL RDA 0. At intakes above the UL, the risk of adverse effects may increase.

This is because these are general guidelines are used for health planning at the national level. It is recognized that individuals, or groups of individuals with special dietary needs, such as athletes, will have different nutrient intake needs and sensitivities. The activity level of an individual, his or her size, and the nutrient status will all factor in when determining the optimum range of intake for nutrients. It is also interesting to note that just in , the UL began to be published, and for some of the essential nutrients, no ULs could be established because there was no research that supported any adverse effects.

When a person is deficient in a nutrient, he or she sometimes must ingest amounts of the nutrient in large amounts to overcome and correct the nutrient deficiency.

This underscores the importance of working under the supervision of a health professional—to determine the exact needs of an individual and to monitor his or her health when self-prescribed nutrition and training programs are being used. Healthy Adults Note that any nutrition examples contained in the units and other course materials could apply to healthy adults, based on their individual requirements, as determined by their physicians and or qualified health professionals.

This information does not apply to everybody the Sports Nutrition: The Vital Link to Supercharging Athletic Performance 25 same way, or it does not apply to children or teenagers or to older adults.

The information contained in the units therefore is intended to provide an understanding of the various nutrients and other dietary substances and to provide a framework for reference purposes. Creating personalized sports nutrition programs for athletes will depend on many factors, including legal aspects, such as any professional health practitioner licensing requirements; years of experience, training, education, and other required skills; and working as part of a heath professional team, including physicians.

Nutrition Intake Approaches Ways of determining nutrition intake approaches are also evolving. For example, for some nutrients, an approach may be to establish one fixed value per day, such as 60 milligrams per day for adult males; or on a gram per kilogram of body weight per day, such as 0.

In reality, when dealing on an individual basis, a combination of these approaches can be useful, in particular percentage of energy intake and on a perkilogram-of-body-weight basis, keeping in mind that there are pros and cons for each individual approach.

When applicable in subsequent units, more details about these approaches will be reviewed. For example, when dealing with grams per kilograms of body weight per day, people with different amounts of lean body mass and body fat will get different dosages based on a lean body mass basis. Conclusion This introductory chapter has presented a new perspective on nutrition that many people never consider. From this point on in your study program, the road to understanding sports nutrition will be made simpler each step along the way as you progress from unit to unit, which will ultimately lead you to a comprehensive understanding of the Dynamic Nutrition Approach to Sports Nutrition.

Introduction VIII. Food a. Food Safety III. Ingredients b. New Dietary Ingredients a. Ingredients and Dietary Labeling IV. Dietary Supplement Definitions X. Special Topics V. Macronutrients: Meeting Energy and Growth Requirements a. Adultertation b. Misbranding c. Food and Allergy Intolerance d. Micronutrients: Metabolic Cofactors e. Genetically Engineered GE Foods a. Nutrient Density f. Gluten b. Bioavailability c. The Limiting Nutrient Concept a. Water and Electrolytes VII.

Foodborne Pathogens XI. Conclusion Ergogenic Aids a. Sports Nutrition Food, ingredients, and Nutrients: An Overview 29 Introduction Every day the human body requires many nutrients for energy, growth, structure, function, performance, and health. Scientists, nutritionists, and health professionals developed special terminology to categorize and represent many nutrition concepts.

There are several main categories of nutrients that you need be concerned with to increase athletic performance and fitness. Most of the essential nutrients are lumped into two main categories: macronutrients and micronutrients. This chapter will provide an overview of the basic food and ingredient basis jargon, which will include substances that occur in food, in addition to the essential nutrients.

Going beyond pure science, the regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration FDA and lawmakers have created terminology related to food and ingredients, noting that dietary supplements are a special category of food in the United States. Essential Nutrient: a nutrient that the body cannot produce itself or that it cannot produce in sufficient amounts to maintain good health. Macronutrient: a macronutrient is any nutrient that the body uses in relatively large amounts.

Macronutrients include carbohydrates, fat, and proteins. Macronutrients are different from micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, which the body needs in smaller amounts. As athletes are training strenuously to attain peak sports performance while maintaining good health, reducing dietary intake of the non-nutritive substances added to foods for technical purposes and extra effort to avoid foodborne pathogens becomes an important strategy.

Also a supplement ingredient. Antioxidant: a nutrient that has been found to seek out and neutralize free radicals in the body and to stimulate the body to recover more quickly from free-radical damage. Sports Nutrition From a scientific research perspective, ingredients related to foods usually focuses on nutritive aspects and substances, like macronutrients, micronutrients, the growing list of plant bioactive substances, water, and metabolite substances such as creatine and Beta-alanine.

From an FDA regulation standpoint, food ingredients go beyond the required nutritive substances to include technical ingredients like preservatives, flavors, sweeteners, and colors for example. The following summary from the FDA lists the types of common food ingredients, why they are used, and some examples of the names that can be found on product labels.

Ingredients and Dietary Ingredients Labeling Although the topic of food labeling is presented in detail in another unit, it is appropriate to review some information related to the topic of ingredients. Regarding packaged foods, such as frozen vegetables, and of processed foods, like pasta, a list of ingredients is located next to the Nutrition Facts panel. When it comes to the special category of foods referred to as dietary supplements, the underlying principles are similar to Nutrition Facts panel bearing foods, with some minor difference and overlap in the food labeling regulations.

The actual nutritionally active ingredients used to make dietary supplements are referred to as dietary ingredients. A short definition of a dietary ingredient is as follows: a vitamin; a mineral; an herb or other botanical; an amino acid; a dietary substance for use by human to supplement the diet by increasing total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any of the above dietary ingredients.

The listing of ingredients for dietary supplements can use two approaches. The first ingredient list approach is to list all the ingredients together the same as for Nutrition Facts bearing foods. Therefore, for example, a dietary supplement product containing vitamin C, the Supplement Facts Panel can list Vitamin C, or Vitamin C as ascorbic acid. If Vitamin C is only listed in the Supplement Facts Panel, and then all the ingredients must be listed under the ingredient heading.

Many more rules and requirements related to food labeling will be covered in a subsequent unit. Enrichment: the addition of specific nutrients i. Enrichment of refined grains is not mandatory; however, those that are labeled as enriched e.

When cereal grains are labeled enriched, it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid. The addition of specific nutrients to whole-grain products is referred to as fortification; see Fortification. Fortification: as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration FDA , the deliberate addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the food.

Fortification may be used to prevent or correct a demonstrated deficiency in the population or specific population groups; restore naturally occurring nutrients lost during processing, storage, or handling; or to add a nutrient to a food at the level found in a comparable traditional food.

When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid. Emulsifier: a substance that, during digestion, helps disperse fats in water mediums.

Except for purposes of sections g and , a dietary supplement shall be deemed to be a food within the meaning of this Act. For comparison to the definition of dietary supplements in the United States, here is the definition related to Natural Health Products in Canada, which includes dietary supplement-type products and ingredients and also includes natural drug products, primarily nonprescription over the counter.

The Natural Health Product category includes both topical and ingestible health products. The active ingredients are referred to as medicinal ingredients. The following list is referred to as Schedule 1: List of Included Substances: 1. A plant or a plant material, an alga, a bacterium, a fungus or a nonhuman animal material.

A plant is a member of the biological Kingdom Plantae and is either the whole plant or parts thereof. A plant consists of complex multicellular eukaryotes that have a cell wall composed primarily of cellulose.

A plant usually produces its own food by photosynthesis using chlorophylls a and b. Example of plants are Allium sativum and Cassia angustifolia. Examples of plant parts are bark, wood, leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds and berries, or parts thereof. International Sports Sciences Association 36 Unit 2 A plant material is material obtained from a plant, including pollens, nucleic materials, mitochondria, chlorophyll and exudates such as resin. An alga is a member of one of the protist biological Kingdoms.

It consists of unicellular, colonial. Algae usually produce their own food by photosynthesis and are mostly aquatic. Examples of algae are Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Laminaria digitata. A bacterium is a member of one of the biological Kingdoms of the Domains Bacteria or Archaea.

It consists of usually unicellular sometimes aggregated, colonial or simple multicellular prokaryotes whose cells lack nuclei or other internal compartmentalization but that have a cell wall external to the plasma membrane in most species. An example is Spirulina cyanobacteria. A fungus is a member of the biological Kingdom Fungi. A fungus consists mainly of complex multicellular eukaryotes that have a cell wall composed primarily of chitin.

Fungi are heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from their surroundings by decomposing organic materials. Examples are Lentinus edodes Shiitake mushroom and Grifolia frondosa Maitake mushroom. An animal is a member of the biological Kingdom Animalia. An animal consists of complex multicellular eukaryotes whose cells have a membrane but no wall. Most members have muscles and nervous tissues. They are heterotrophs that mostly ingest food into a specialized cavity, where it is digested.

Examples are Squalus acanthias shark and Gadus morhua cod. A non-human animal material is a body part or secretion obtained from an animal other than a human and is used in the preparation of a natural health product.

Examples are elk antler velvet, bovine colostrums, shark cartilage, and attenuation prepared from canine milk Lac caninum. An extract or isolate of a substance described in item 1, the primary molecular structure of which is identical to that which it had prior to its extraction or isolation.

An extract is a substance prepared by treating a plant or a plant material, an alga, a bacterium, a fungus or a non-human animal material with solvents to obtain the desired compounds. Examples are Echinacea angustifolia solid extract, Panax ginseng tincture and St.

An isolate is a purified constituent of a defined molecular structure obtained from a plant or a plant material, an alga, a bacterium, a fungus or a non-human animal material.

Examples are glutathione and capsaicin. Any of the following vitamins: 1. Biotin 7. Vitamin A 2. Folate 8. Vitamin B6 3. Niacin 9. Vitamin B12 4. Pantothenic acid Vitamin C 5. Riboflavin Vitamin D 6. Thiamin Vitamin E Vitamins are naturally occurring organic substances required by the body to maintain health. Recognizing that the natural health product definition excludes substances that require a prescription, and that vitamin K is currently listed on Schedule F to the Food and Drug Regulations without specifying parameters, NHPD has removed vitamin K from Schedule 1 until the parameters for vitamin K have been determined.

International Sports Sciences Association 38 Unit 2 4. An amino acid. An amino acid is a class of organic molecule that contains amino and carboxyl groups. Amino acids form the main constituents of proteins that are found in a plant or a plant material, an alga, a fungus, a bacterium or a non-human animal material. The following are acceptable amino acids:. NHPD acknowledges that there are other amino acids not captured under this definition.

These amino acids will be captured under the isolate category: 1. L-alanine L-leucine 2. L-arginine L-lysine 3. L-asparagine L-methionine 4. L-aspartic acid L-phenylalanine 5. L-cysteine L-proline 6. L-glutamine L-serine 7. L-glutamic acid L-threonine 8. L-glycine L-tryptophan 9. L-histidine L-tyrosine L-isoleucine L-valine 5.

An Essential Fatty Acid An essential fatty acid cannot be synthesized in the body; hence, it must be supplied through the diet or a supplement. Linoleic acid and alpha linolenic acid are essential fatty acids. All other fatty acids such as oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, gamma-linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are considered extracts or isolates see item 2, above. A synthetic duplicate of a substance described in any of items 2 to 5 A synthetic duplicate is a substance that shares an identical chemical structure and pharmacological properties with its natural counterpart.

Examples are vitamin E - DL alpha-tocopherol. A semi-synthetic substance may also be acceptable as a natural health product provided it shares an identical chemical structure and pharmacological properties with its natural counterpart.

A semisynthetic substance is produced by a process that chemically changes a related starting material that has been extracted or isolated from a plant or a plant material, an alga, a fungus or a non-human animal material. An example is ginsenosides the starting compound used is betulafolienetriol. A Mineral A mineral is a naturally occurring solid, inorganic substance with a definite and predictable chemical composition and physical properties.

A probiotic The Natural Health Products Regulations define a probiotic as a monoculture or mixed culture of live micro-organisms that benefit the microbiota indigenous to humans.

A probiotic is limited to nonpathogenic microorganisms. An example is Lactobacillus acidophilus. Note that in practice, both approaches have strong points and weaknesses, with room to evolve via interpretation and or updating the laws and regulations. In either case, this brings the highest level of credibility to the various ingredients used in dietary supplements, including sports supplements.

Since the Natural Health Product was established in , over 50, products have been licensed, using hundreds of ingredients and associated claims, including the same ingredients used in sports nutrition supplements in the United States.

International Sports Sciences Association 40 Unit 2 Protein: one of the nutrients that provides calories to the body. Protein is an essential nutrient that helps build many parts of the body, including blood, bone, muscle, and skin. Protein provides 4 calories per gram and is found in foods like beans, dairy products, eggs, fish, meat, nuts, poultry, and tofu. Proteins are composed of amino acids, nine of which are indispensable essential , meaning they cannot be synthesized by humans and therefore must be obtained from the diet.

Protein quality is determined by two factors: digestibility and amino acid composition. Fat: a major source of energy in the diet, fat helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Some kinds of fats, especially saturated fats and trans fatty acids, may raise blood cholesterol and increase the risk for heart disease. Other fats, such as unsaturated fats, do not raise blood cholesterol. Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids.

Energy Expenditure: The amount of energy that you use measured in calories. You use calories to breathe, send blood through your blood vessels, digest food, maintain posture, and be physically active. Sports Nutrition Macronutrients: Meeting Energy and Growth Requirements Macronutrients are nutrients that are required daily in large amounts and are thought of in quantities of ounces and grams.

They include carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and water. Macronutrients are important for providing the body with a supply of energy and serving as the building blocks the body needs for growth and repair. Macronutrients occur in all foods but vary in amount and proportion.

For example, meats can be high in protein and fat, with almost no carbohydrate content. Pasta however is very high in carbohydrates, with moderate amounts of protein and a low fat content. Carbohydrates and lipids are the macronutrients primarily used to provide the body with energy.

Proper energy substrate intake is important to balance energy expenditure and maintain desired body composition and performance. Your energy requirements will vary with age, activity, and foods eaten. Adult daily energy requirements may range from a low of 1, or even lower to more than 6, calories per day. The approximate caloric content of the macronutrients and alcohol are as follows: Caloric Content of Macronutrients and Alcohol Calories per Gram Calories per Ounce Carbohydrate 4 In the past, it was assumed that all calories supplied by nutrients were metabolized the same way and that their total caloric content was equally used for energy.

However, in recent years, scientists have determined that the energy content of different Food, ingredients, and Nutrients: An Overview 41 macronutrients may vary slightly in the body depending upon the relative proportions of the other macronutrients present in the diet, the type of macronutrient, the presence of vitamin and mineral cofactors, the level of hydration, and the physical conditioning of the individual.

For example, protein is considered a protected nutrient because the body reserves its use for the synthesis of tissues and molecules instead of energy use.

Therefore, the body has a tendency to use carbohydrates, including glycogen stores and lipids fats , for energy instead of using ingested protein and the protein that makes up muscle tissue. In fact, a thermogenic response has been detected in response to eating diets high in protein, indicating that more energy is used in the digestion and metabolism of proteins; see box on thermogenesis for details. Although, with increased athletic conditioning and training volume and energy expenditure, some protein and amino acids get used for energy, and minimizing this occurrence and compensating for it in a sports nutrition plan is a vital strategy—in addition to the preferred high-energy substrate intake.

Thermogenic Response: the rise in the metabolic rate. Also known as the thermogenic effect or specific dynamic action sda. Thermogenesis: the process by which the body generates heat, or energy, by increasing the metabolic rate above normal. Thermogenesis Thermogenesis is a term generally used to describe metabolic heat production by the body.

Some different terms maybe used to describe different aspects of thermogenesis. For example, related to nutrition, there is a thermic effect of food TEF , also referred to as diet-induced thermogenesis DIT.

This is due to the energy it takes to digest, process, and use or store food by the body. This is sometimes also referred to as the thermogenic effect of food. This is usually in relationship to an increase of the rate of energy expenditure above the basal metabolic rate. The food related raise in metabolic rate is also referred to as specific dynamic action SDA. After a meal, the metabolic rate and energy expenditure increases.

It is estimated this increase may be about 10 percent per day from food consumed. The type of macronutrients seems to have different effects on the thermogenic response. When food is ingested the metabolic rate energy used increases above the fasting level. In the case of proteins, it is thought that this occurs because the body must use energy to process the proteins, which are then used as building blocks for tissue growth and repair.

On the other hand, carbohydrates and fats function primarily as fuel, and the metabolism can more efficiently use them for energy without much energy input to process them, when compared to protein. They therefore have a lower thermogenic effect compared to protein. Diet induced thermogenesis. Nutr Metab Lond ;1 1 Aside from conventional food consumption, some ingredients may have a thermogenic effect; caffeine for example may increase the metabolic rate in some people.

Again, this is in relationship to the basal metabolic rate. International Sports Sciences Association 42 Unit 2 Glucose: a simple carbohydrate that is a monosaccharide. Also called dextrose or grape sugar. Starch: a complex carbohydrate that occurs only in plants. Several types of carbohydrates will affect your energy and performance depending on when you eat them and what kind of carbohydrate you eat. There are complex carbohydrates starches and simple carbohydrates, like glucose and fructose.

Starch which is composed of chains of glucose may provide the body with a slow and steady supply of glucose, depending on the type of food.

Generally, simple carbohydrates, like glucose, get into the bloodstream fast and serve as a quick supply of energy. Fructose gets into the bloodstream at a slower rate than glucose does and has a typically slower metabolic series of pathways. However, ingesting too much fructose must be avoided, as should restricting the consumption of other simple carbohydrates to certain nutrient timing opportunities, as reviewed in the corresponding unit.

Lipids are a technical term that refers to fats and other plant and animal nutrients that are insoluble in water. The fatty acids that make up fats and oils contain the highest energy of any macronutrient on a per weight basis. Other lipids, like cholesterol, are not important energy sources, but are major components of steroid hormones and bile acids. Your body is always using a mixture of carbohydrate and fat for energy, plus a little protein.

Endurance sports tend to cause the body to burn a higher proportion of fat, and condition the body to be better at using fats for energy. Compare this with power sports, like sprinting, which burn a greater amount of carbohydrates for energy during these types of physical activity.

Thus, physical activity will dictate the proportion of macronutrients needed in your diet. For example, a marathon runner will generally need a diet high in carbohydrates and moderate in fat and protein.

On the other hand, the power lifter needs a diet high in carbohydrates and protein with low amounts of fat. This is one of the several aspects of the Dynamic Nutrition Approach model. Protein utilization during and after exercise is more complicated than is the use of carbohydrates and fats for energy. Protein provides the body with essential building blocks in the form of its subunits, called amino acids. However, during exercise, the body will use certain amino acids for energy and other metabolic functions.

This cannot be prevented, but it can be compensated for by ingesting proteins with Sports Nutrition Food, ingredients, and Nutrients: An Overview 43 higher amounts of the certain amino acids used during exercise—the branched chain amino acids, for example. Special nutrition supplements can be used to boost the efficiency and utilization of dietary proteins, along with certain vitamin and mineral cofactors to prevent muscle breakdown and encourage muscle repair, such as amino acid tablets and protein supplement drinks and nutrition bars.

However, the proportions of these macronutrients may vary around your training, meal and resting periods. For example, right before and during the time that a person exercises, intake of water, electrolytes, some amino acids, and simple carbohydrates will be desirable to maintain energy and spare glycogen stores and muscle tissue. Fat and large amounts of proteins are not desirable right before or during training or athletic events because they take longer to digest and will impair performance.

During exercise bouts or athletic competition, intake of water and or hypotonic carbohydrate - electrolyte beverages is typically needed to prevent glycogen depletion. Of course, glycogen depletion causes fatigue and reduced exercise output, so athletic individuals want to avoid depletion of their glycogen carbohydrate body stores. Finally, studies have shown that ingestion of carbohydrates, or a mixed meal about 60 minutes after exercise will result in significant glycogen repletion.

Mastering meal timing and macronutrient modulation can help fine-tune the most sophisticated performance and fitness nutrition improvement programs. Macronutrient Modulation: the practice of varying the ratio of the macronutrients in the diet to meet specific metabolic needs to enhance performance. Also called macronutrient manipulation. Water and Electrolytes Water is the most essential macronutrient to life but provides no calories or nutrition.

Water is the universal solvent that all life on earth depends on and is the medium for transporting the food materials to be used International Sports Sciences Association 44 Unit 2 in the body. A person can survive several weeks without food but only several days without water. The importance of water has always been recognized, but recently, more and more research has shown that maintaining optimum levels of hydration is important in maintaining peak performance and recovery.

In sports like soccer and basketball, the athletes can lose several pounds of water weight in just one game. Electrolyte Balance: the ratio of chloride, potassium, sodium, and the other electrolytes in the body. In addition to maintaining hydration, the body also needs to maintain its electrolyte balance. The major electrolytes found in body fluids include sodium, chloride, and potassium along with calcium, phosphate, and magnesium. Water constitutes a small or large part of every cell, depending on the function of the cell.

Likewise, specific quantities of electrolytes are found in both cellular and extra cellular water. Water and electrolyte concentrations in the body are closely controlled, even under extreme temperature conditions.

Like water, electrolytes can be lost through sweat and excretion. Replenishing water and electrolyte losses during exercise and throughout the day has become an increasingly complex task for athletic individuals as new discoveries about the dynamics of these critical nutrients are made, such as different rates of loss.

Micronutrients: Metabolic Cofactors Even more diverse than the macronutrients is the group of nutrients called micronutrients. As the name implies, micronutrients are nutrients present in the diet and body in small amounts.

They are measured in milligrams and micrograms. They do not provide significant amounts of calories to the body but act as cofactors in making biomolecules, have structural roles, function as electrolytes, and function as enzymes.

Broadly speaking, the essential vitamins and minerals, the non-essential vitamins and minerals, vitamin-like substances, and other dietary biomolecules which are important in performance, fitness, and health fall into the micronutrient category. Vitamins are organic compounds that are required by the body for maintenance of good health and growth. Vitamins are further classified as fat-soluble and water-soluble. By convention, the word vitamin has been reserved for certain nutrients that the body cannot manufacture Sports Nutrition Food, ingredients, and Nutrients: An Overview 45 and must get through eating food.

The fat soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. This storage capability makes it possible to take so much of the fat soluble vitamin that the effect on the body is toxic. Concern over the intake of fat-soluble vitamins should be exercised.

Guidelines will be provided in subsequent Units regarding safe limits of intake. The water soluble vitamins include the B vitamins and vitamin C. In contrast to the fatsoluble vitamins, the water-soluble vitamins are not easily stored by the body.

More often, they are lost from foods during cooking or eliminated from the body. The B vitamins function mainly as coenzymes. Vitamin C has several important metabolic roles.

Vitamins are not usually metabolized for energy, but some of them are essential for the production of energy from the macronutrients and act as cofactors. As with the macronutrients, vitamin research has only begun to illuminate how these nutrients benefit performance and health beyond nutritional deficiency prevention.

However, current findings give us a good picture of how vitamins are important for health and performance. In fact, you may be aware of some multivitamin supplements designed for athletic people, typically containing higher amounts of the B vitamins.

Minerals such as calcium are required in large amounts every day, about 1, milligrams mg or more, whereas other minerals, such as chromium, are needed in microgram mcg amounts. A microgram is 1,th of a milligram. Even though there is a relatively wide range of intake observed, the relative importance of each mineral is equal.

Some minerals are found in the body in their inorganic form, such as calcium salts in the bone and sodium chloride in the blood. Other minerals are present in the body in organic combinations, such as iron in hemoglobin and iodine in thyroxin. Absorption of minerals into the body will vary greatly depending upon the type of mineral. Researchers are discovering that just because a food contains a mineral, or vitamin, does not mean that all of it will get into the body.

This is another reason sports supplements are recommended. They ensure that the exact amount of nutrients will be supplied to the body. Additionally, you can get high-quality nutrients without the fat, salt, pesticides, and other junk that is found in many foods. In addition to the essential vitamins and minerals, there exists a host of other micronutrients that the body can make on its own but can also benefit from by eating.

Sodium bicarbonate can improve performance in explosive power sports. L-Carnitine is essential for the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids into energy.

While carnitine can be made from the amino acids lysine and methionine, research has shown that supplemental amounts can benefit fat metabolism and increase endurance. Another nutrient, creatine, is widely taken by International Sports Sciences Association 46 Unit 2 athletes in supplement form and touted for its energy-enhancing effects and usefulness in strength sports. In addition to the vitamins, minerals, and accessory nutrients, there is a growing awareness of other substances found in plants and animals that can improve health and performance.

A group of naturally occurring plant compounds, the bioflavonoids, beneficially maintain the artery walls of the circulatory system and have other beneficial health effects.

Furthermore, vitamins, minerals, and supplements like glucosamine and herbal curcumin can be important for optimizing healing and recovery of exercise-induced wear and tear. Then there are the probiotics, which are live microorganisms with beneficial health effects, such as promoting gastrointestinal wellness and some immune system function. Nutrient Density Foods contain macronutrients and micronutrients in a variety of combinations and amounts.

A potato is high in complex carbohydrates, contains some protein and B vitamins, and is a good source of vitamin C, some minerals, especially potassium and phosphorus , and a trace amount of fat.

Meat, like steak for example, is high in protein and fat but has no carbohydrates. Steak also acts as a good source of vitamin A, some B vitamins, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and magnesium. Creatine is also found in steak but can get converted during the cooking process to the inactive creatinine. Just a brief look at these two foods demonstrates that although they contain some of the essential nutrients, they lack others.

Sports Nutrition The nutrient content of food will also vary depending upon when and where it is grown. In these modern times, a vast portion of food is processed.

Most of these processed foods are very low in micronutrients. For example, white pasta, which is a good source of carbohydrates, has been stripped of most of its micronutrient content and its fiber from the external bran layer in processing its flour. In fact, most pasta is now vitamin fortified to compensate for this low nutrient content. Canned vegetables can also lose much of their vitamin content in the preparation process, including enzymes lost from the cooking process.

Eating whole foods and supplements is necessary for high-quality nutrition. This is the real solution. If you are eating a great many carbohydrates from sugar, for example, the essential vitamin cofactors will not be present in proper amounts to obtain the most efficient and highest level of energy out of this food. Too much sugar intake also can cause imbalances in your insulin levels. These factors have a direct effect on how you body uses nutrients for energy or for conversion to fat.

Therefore, maintaining an intake of foods that are high in quality nutrients is important for reaching top performance.

For the athlete, attaining a nutrient dense diet will include combining fresh healthy whole foods with the right supplements for your sport or fitness activity. For example, a long-distance runner can improve performance by taking co-enzyme Q and carnitine supplements, whereas a power lifter will benefit from ingesting extra protein and taking a creatine monohydrate supplement, and a range of athletes and exercisers may benefit from Beta-alanine.

Food, ingredients, and Nutrients: An Overview 47 Bioavailability It was once assumed that the presence of a nutrient in a particular food meant that the body would make full use of it. We now know that this assumption does not hold true for many nutrients.

Bioavailability refers to the ability of an ingested nutrient to enter from the digestive tract, into the bloodstream, and on to the cells where it is utilized.

Certain nutrients compete with each other for intestinal absorption. Food preparation can affect bioavailability. Problems with your digestive system will interfere with nutrient absorption, and some nutrients are absorbed better in the presence of other nutrients—the intestinal absorption of phosphorus by vitamin D for example. When constructing a nutrition program, you need to pick foods and supplements that contain highly bioavailable nutrients to achieve maximum nutrition performance.

The taste buds in the TASTE: mouth are arranged on the tongue but are also found in the palate and in the pharynx. The The perception stimulated when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with a taste receptor cell in the oral cavity.

Every human has between 9, and 10, taste buds, but they diminish over time. As humans age, they can still taste just fine but may find themselves using far more seasonings on their foods. Through taste, humans can discern bitter, sour, sweet, salty, and umami savory. UMAMI: One of the five categories of taste in food, corresponding to the flavor of glutamates, especially monosodium glutamate. Texture how foods feel to the hands as people handle them and mouthfeel as they consume it drive the way humans select foods.

While this sensation is unique for everyone, texture can affect the way the brain processes the taste and smell of a food. However, the texture of tomato paste which is simply pureed tomato may not bother them, and this taste is palatable. The consistency of food describes its firmness or thickness and goes hand in hand with food texture.

This explains why a stuffy nose makes food taste very different than when the sinuses are clear. Flavor is a very important factor determining the success or failure of food items processed and fresh in the consumer marketplace.

Flavor is heavily influenced by the amount of fat in the food. This explains why reduced fat or fat-free products do not taste quite the same as their full fat counterparts. However, the addition of other compounds like sugar or sweeteners to lower fat foods may make them taste sweeter. Foods for a specified health use are referred to as functional foods.

Functional foods are those selected, produced, or consumed for reasons beyond calorie and nutrient content. This term was coined in Japan, where the functional food market is one of the most advanced in the world. Functional foods are divided into four categories: modified foods, conventional foods, medical foods, and special dietary foods.

Examples include broccoli, tomatoes, and kale. Simple, unmodified whole foods like vegetables and fruits.

Examples include canned or bottled supplements for the treatment of diabetes or liver disease. These include cultural, economic, and religious considerations. Many cultures exist, including American culture. Whale blubber is a staple in arctic areas, and dog is considered a delicacy in parts of Asia. Grubs are consumed for protein in Australia, escargot snails are popular in France, and sushi is an Asian staple becoming more popular across the globe.

Nearly 25 percent of the American population are ethnic minorities or were born in another country before coming to the United States. The foods that are commonplace or influenced by their cultures have traveled to the United States with them, and foods like pizza, Thai, Moroccan, and Vietnamese cuisine are more common. Many Americans live in food deserts—urban areas where fresh fruits, vegetables, and meats are not readily available.

In these areas, consumers rely on processed foods from convenience stores and markets. The cost of fresh fruits is generally higher than the cost of processed, sugary foods, and families and individuals with income restrictions will often forgo the healthy options for the less expensive, unhealthy ones. Government assistance programs are becoming more widely available to reduce the cost of whole foods and supply extra funds dedicated to groceries for individuals and families in need.

The selection of foods and the way they are prepared can vary between religious groups. For example, Buddhists consider it uncompassionate to eat the flesh of another living creature, and many, though not all, are vegetarians.

Hindus do not believe in injuring or killing an animal for its meat. Cows are sacred in that culture. Thus, the devout Hindu diet rejects poultry, eggs, and meats.

The Mormon church discourages parishioners from drinking coffee, alcohol, and tea. In the Orthodox Jewish faith, the consumption of kosher foods. Kosher foods include ruminant animals sheep, cows, and goats , chicken, goose, fruits, and vegetables. Similarly, halal foods are permitted foods in Islam.

Halal foods do not allow animal blood, improper slaughter, intoxicants, or decay. Holidays for religious groups like Passover, Ramadan, or Lent can affect the foods consumed or the frequency and timing of food consumption. Many religious holidays involve fasting or food restrictions during a set period. The cells provide structure, absorb nutrients, generate energy, move waste, and perform specialized functions essential to life.

Depending on the location of a cell, the function and makeup will vary. In the hierarchy of the human body, cells accommodate energy metabolism, cell signaling, genetic growth and replication, and transport in addition to other functions. Proteins, genetic material, and the macronutrients protein, fat, and carbohydrates exist within cells. Masses of cells make up tissues, organs, organ systems, and the organism that is the human.

All three macronutrients—fat, carbohydrate, and protein—are present in cells. The basic animal cell is made up of a cell wall, cytoplasm, and a nucleus. Within the cytoplasm are organelles, structures in a living cell performing specialized metabolic tasks. The organelles manage processes ranging from the replication of genetic material to excretion of waste and energy production. Many of the organelles interact during cellular processes, but each has a distinct function.

Table 2. Figure 2. Glycoproteins attach to the extracellular proteins and carbohydrate molecules, while A fatty acid linked through glycerol phosphate forming cell membranes. Proteins make up about 60 percent of a cell membrane with the other 40 percent composed of fats. The fats making up the lipid bilayer are called phospholipids and are made of polar hydrophilic heads and two chains for a hydrophobic tail.

The hydrophobic tails are repelled by the aqueous water-filled environment within and outside the cell and form the lipid bilayer structure. Technically, there are more than different types of cells present in an adult human. TISSUE: Shortly after the fertilization of a human egg by a sperm cell, a bundle of 70— cells called Groups of cells having similar structure and acting together to perform a function. The blastocyst forms about five days after a sperm cell fertilizes an ovum and is full of mostly undifferentiated cells that can become any of the cell types within the body as they continue to divide and grow.

Each human tissue has specific functions and, thus, specific cells to perform the functions. There are four main tissue types in the human body: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues. These can be as long as 4. The largest human cell is a fertilized egg. Sheets of epithelial cells form the epidermis skin layer and line the gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. These cells are constantly being replaced to maintain the protective layer through a process called epithelialization.

The process of replacing epithelial cells to maintain a protective barrier. Epithelial tissue is defined by the type of epithelial cell s it contains. These cells can be classified as squamous, cuboidal, or columnar, but many more complex types exist. Box-shaped epithelial cells that secrete and absorb. They are part of the lining of the lymphatic and cardiovascular systems, alveoli of the lungs, kidney tubules, and capillaries.

They are found in the kidney tubules and gland ducts. Columnar epithelial cells Rectangular-shaped epithelial cells that secrete and absorb in a basal layer.

They absorb and secrete molecules and can be found in the female reproductive tract and in the digestive tract. The simple epithelial cells are in a single layer, while stratified cells create layers. Outside the simple or stratified epithelial cells, transitional epithelium and glandular epithelium cell types also play a large role in the body. Transitional epithelial cells can change their shape as in the bladder. Connective Tissue Connective tissue is any tissue serving to support, connect, or bind other tissues in the body.

It is divided into three main categories: loose connective tissue, dense connective tissue, and specialized connective tissue. Loose connective tissue is made of collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers, and it holds organs in place.

Dense connective tissue is made of the same components and makes up tendons and ligaments connecting muscle to bone and bone to bone. Specialized connective tissue serves specific purposes and includes a variety of forms: adipose fat tissue cartilage, bone, blood, and lymph fluid.

Muscle Tissue There are three types of muscle tissue in the human body: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Muscle fibers responsible for voluntary muscle contraction. Smooth muscle, while not as abundant as skeletal muscle, plays a much larger role in human function. It is responsible for the involuntary muscle contractions in every organ system, ranging from uterine contractions and vascular resistance to digestion and secretion.

Cardiac muscle is unique in the way it contracts. Also involuntary, cardiac muscle is found only in the heart and contains branched and striated muscle fibers allowing for the propagation of signals through the individual cells. The nerve cells and neuroglial cells are included in nervous tissue. Nerve cells are often referred to as neurons, and they propagate signals from the brain to the body, called efferent nerves or motor neurons, and from the body to the brain, called afferent nerves or sensory neurons.

Neuroglial cells are found in the central nervous system CNS , which consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The neuroglial cells do not propagate nerve signals but serve to protect neurons, form new myelin, and maintain homeostasis. The average adult body makes between 50 and 70 billion new cells of various types every day? This is to accommodate for the natural death or loss of the same number of cells every 24 hours. The cells in the body that have the shortest life span are the epithelial cells in the intestines, while sperm cells, the male sex cells, can live more than 60 days inside the body and up to 3 days outside the body.

Each is separated from the next, but their functions and actions are often intertwined. Dysfunction in one system will often affect other organ systems. Integumentary System The integumentary system is the largest organ system covering the entire human body and is made up of skin, hair, and nails.

This system protects the internal organ systems from damage and disease, prevents water and fluid loss, and regulates body temperature.

The epidermis is the external layer creating a waterproof The external layer creating a waterproof barrier and giving the skin its physical tone. The dermis is just below the epidermis and DERMIS: the skin layer below the epidermis containing hair follicles, connective tissue, sweat glands, blood vessels, and lymph vessels.

Below the dermis is the hypodermis, which is made up of adipose and connective tissue. The subcutaneous layer serves to insulate and is technically part of the hypodermal layer. Muscles—big and small—are responsible for the movement of the human body but also posture, the stability of joints, and heat production. The muscular system consists of three muscle tissue types: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is the most prominent by mass, but smooth muscle has the largest amount of function in the body.

Smooth muscle is found in all hollow organs, such as blood vessels, the intestines, the bladder, and the uterus in females. It is important to distinguish among the tissue types, as skeletal muscle is voluntarily contracted and can therefore be trained with physical activity, while cardiac and smooth muscle are involuntarily contracted. All three tissue types require balanced nutrition for longevity. Skeletal muscle is classified and named by factors such as the size, shape, location, and action of the muscle.

Humans are vertebrates—animals with a vertebral column or spine. The skeletal system consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons, which are all connective tissues, and accounts for about 20 percent of the human body mass. Its purpose is to provide a framework to protect the soft organs inside the body and protect the nervous system components, including the brain and spinal cord, from damage.

ISSA Fitness Nutrition 32 Bones contain more calcium than any other organ in the body, and they consume oxygen and nutrients, create metabolic waste, and require blood supply. These processes allow bone to actively grow, remodel, and respond to the physical stresses placed on the body.

The skeleton can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is made up of 80 bones in the adult human and includes the bones of the vertical axis of the body, such as the sternum, cranium, and vertebral column.

The appendicular skeleton is made up of bones and includes the bones of the appendages attaching to the axial skeleton. There are several types of bones within the skeletal system that are generally named for their appearance. ISSA Fitness Nutrition 34 Nervous System The nervous system allows the body to communicate with, control, and regulate the other organ systems for proper body function.

The CNS and PNS provide all the sensory and motor neurons needed to transmit electrical signals throughout the body that are translated into movement. The motor neurons of the PNS are broken down into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is completely involuntary and controls the internal organs, including the heart and lungs as well as glands.

Circulatory System The circulatory system circulates blood within the vascular system around the body and consists of the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood. This is a closed system, meaning the fluid stays within the organ system.

The circulatory system is also important for the transport of nutrients from the digestive system to body tissues and for waste clearance resulting from physical activity such as weight training or aerobic exercise. The arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and to the tissues, veins carry blood toward the heart to remove waste and pick up more VEINS: oxygen, and capillaries transport nutrients and oxygen or carbon dioxide on a microscopic Blood vessels carrying blood toward the heart to remove waste and pick up more oxygen.

Blood and platelets are circulated in the circulatory system along with the cells that are responsible for immunity. These connective tissues aid in the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide, allow for blood clotting in the event of an injury or integument breach, and trap and kill foreign bodies. Did you know the adult human body can manufacture up to 17 million red blood cells per second?

That is small potatoes when considering the fact that there are around billion red blood cells in a single ounce of blood. First, The organ system working in conjunction with the circulatory and immune systems to prevent disease and maintain fluid balance. Lymphatic organs that filter and remove foreign particles. Second, the lymphatic system aids in filtering excess fluid from the spaces between cells known as interstitial space.

About 90 percent of the fluid exiting the capillaries into tissue is returned via the circulatory system or the lymphatic system. The remaining 10 percent of fluid remains in the interstitial or cellular spaces. The space between cells. The lymphatic system is heavily intertwined with the circulatory system and regulates fluid volume in the interstitial space and in the blood vessels.

The process is called ventilation and will become more rapid when the energy needs of the body or activity levels increase to support the oxygen demands of the cells and tissues. This process is made possible with cooperation from the nervous system and the muscular system.

Breathing; inhalation and exhalation. To inhale, the diaphragm is pulled downward to expand the lungs and pull air into the airway. Endocrine System The endocrine system works closely with the nervous system to produce, release, and regulate chemical messengers called hormones in the body.

Hormones affect the growth, development, and metabolic activity of tissues throughout the body. Exocrine glands, such as sweat glands or mammary milk glands, have ducts that carry secretions to the surface. The specific organs involved include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. ISSA Fitness Nutrition 40 The kidneys have a complex system of funnels and tubules filtering about quarts of blood and fluid daily, with the goal of removing waste, excess ammonia, and excess water from the body.

Some of the fluid filtered by the kidneys is reabsorbed by the body, especially in the event of dehydration. Fluid that is not reabsorbed into the bloodstream is called urine and is collected in the urinary bladder and held before being expelled. The reproductive system has four major functions: The organ system responsible for human reproduction. All other organs, ducts, and glands associated with the reproductive system are The primary reproductive organs, the ovaries and testes, that produce the gametes sex cells and sex hormones of an organism.

Referred to as the gastrointestinal GI tract, the digestive system has six functions responsible for breaking down food for energy: 5 Ingestion: taking food in through the mouth 6 Mechanical digestion: chewing mastication and the churning and mixing actions of the stomach that further break down food 7 Chemical digestion: breaking food down further via enzymes released into the stomach mixed with water 8 Movements: moving food through the digestive system by the rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscle of the digestive tract, a process known as peristalsis 9 Absorption: absorbing simple molecules by the cell membranes in the lining of the small intestine and moving into blood or lymph capillaries 10 Elimination: removing waste products and indigestible particles The digestive tract—beginning at the mouth and ending at the anus—is between four and six meters long.

Unlike the circulatory system, which is a closed system, the digestive tract is an MUCOSA: Innermost lining of the digestive tract in contact with food. The basic structure of the digestive tract includes four layers of specialized tissues. The mucosa lines the digestive tract and is in contact with the food that passes through.

The muscularis Smooth muscle in the GI tract moving food through. The systematic series of smooth muscle contractions that move food through the GI tract.

Next is the muscular layer made of smooth muscle tissue. The inner layer is made of cells arranged in a circular pattern, the outer layer with cells in a longitudinal pattern.

The combined peristaltic action of these layers moves food through the digestive tract. It acts as a barrier between The layer of the GI tract with lymphatic and blood vessels and nerves. The second is a thin layer of epithelial cells secreting serous fluid to reduce friction from muscle movements.

The outermost layer of the GI tract serving as a barrier. These include the heart, brain, kidneys, liver, and lungs. If any of these five organs stops working, and there is no medical intervention, death is imminent.

The process of food breakdown varies by macronutrient, but all food travels the same route through the digestive system. The alimentary tract includes all the organs the food travels through. Mouth Ingestion and the beginning stage of mechanical digestion occur in the mouth. The salivary glands are accessory organs.

Saliva contains water, mucus, and the enzyme amylase. Amylase begins the process of breaking down starches. Also known as the throat, the pharynx is a passageway transporting food, water, and air. Esophagus Food travels from the pharynx into the esophagus with the action of swallowing. From the esophagus, food enters the stomach.

Stomach The stomach, found in the upper-left portion of the abdominal cavity, aids in both mechanical and chemical digestion. It is divided into four regions: the fundic, cardiac, body, and pyloric regions. From top to bottom—the cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric regions of the stomach are shown. Gastric juices, which are acids helping to chemically digest food, are made constantly but are either upregulated or downregulated by the hormone gastrin.

The process of digestion is controlled by gastrin in three different phases: CHYME: The pulpy, acidic fluid passing from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partially digested food.

Small Intestine Most of the nutrients from food are absorbed into the body in the small intestine. It is divided into three sections in the following order: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The duodenum is the shortest section of the small intestine, and it receives chyme from the stomach.

It is responsible for chemically digesting the chyme to prepare for absorption in more distal areas of the small intestine. The peristatic movement of the smooth muscle is fast and strong in this region of the Crescent-shaped folds of the mucosa and submucosa.

Finally, the ileum is the last section of the small intestine before the cecum and is responsible for absorbing vitamin B12, bile salts, and anything missed by the jejunum. Tiny hairlike projections often on the surface of mucous membranes. Absorption occurs via the plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli.

The folds of the small intestine are further folded into villi. The villi are further folded into microvilli, which absorb nutrients at a cellular level. The folds increase the surface area of the intestine. Both exocrine and endocrine cells support the digestive process in the small intestine. Cholecystokinin helps digest An endocrine secretion in the GI tract to digest proteins and fats.

Secretin regulates water balance and pH within the duodenum. The large intestine is divided into the colon ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid , rectum, and anus. The large intestine does not digest food or produce digestive enzymes. Rather, the large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes left over from digestion and pushes chyme along throughout the colon to be eliminated from the body.

ANUS: The opening at the end of the alimentary tract where waste exits the body. Rectum and Anus The rectum allows a space for fecal matter to be stored before it is eliminated from the body. The anus is the opening through which fecal matter exits. At each end of the anal canal are sphincters controlling the release of feces. Liver The liver is the largest gland in the body. It receives oxygenated blood from the hepatic artery and nutrient-rich blood from the digestive tract through the hepatic portal vein.

A short blood vessel supplying oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and gallbladder. Bile is made of water, bile salts, bile pigments, and cholesterol, and it helps in the BILE: digestion and absorption of fats. A bitter, greenish-brown alkaline fluid aiding in digestion; secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

Pancreas The pancreas is found behind the stomach and has both endocrine and exocrine functions in the body. The islets of Langerhans are groups of specialized cells on the pancreas secreting the endocrine hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

Secretions of the pancreas are controlled by the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin. The relative locations and anatomy of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas accessory organs are shown. Metabolism is the way the human body converts consumed foods into a source of energy to power physiological processes. Energy requirements of the body for physical activity and bodily functions, such as digestion, respiration, and circulation, are met by the digestion and absorption of nutrients and the presence of oxygen.

The balance between nutrient consumption and energy demands creates an energy balance. Did you know energy exists in six basic forms? These forms are chemical, nuclear, electrical, mechanical, thermal, and radiant. The form of energy humans and animals directly rely upon for survival is chemical energy.

The energy released as the bonds that hold chemicals together are broken. Both are required to perform the cellular processes producing energy for body function. Figure 3. When it comes to nutrition, understanding these processes, as well as energy balance, is important.

In nutritional terms, energy is provided by a calorie cal. Calories are provided by macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, and minerals consumed in the diet. The breakdown of these nutrient sources yields a specific number of calories individually. Table 3. The simple observation for a fitness and nutrition professional is the gain or loss of body mass. If an individual gains weight over time, they are consuming an excess of calories compared to what they are expending. If an individual loses weight over time, they are consuming fewer calories than they are expending.

Excess calories lead to weight gain, while deficiency of calories leads to weight loss. Research has shown the average American consumes about 3, calories a day, an increase of more than 24 percent from the average of 2, calories daily in The current guidelines from the US Department of Health and Human Services declare the average adult female requires 1,—2, calories daily, and the average adult male requires 2,— 3, calories daily from all nutritional sources.

Historical research has found the average human consumes about 3, kcal daily, but self-reporting showed average calorie consumption of 2, kcal daily for men and 1, kcal daily for women. The classic method is a calorimeter, which measures heat production.

Energy expenditure is a result of the cumulation of four main processes in the body: resting metabolic rate RMR , thermic effect of food TEF , physical activity, and physical growth.

RMR is, specifically, the energy required to support cardiac function and respiration, repair internal organs, maintain body temperature, and balance water and ion concentrations across cell membranes. It is also referred to as basal metabolic rate BMR.

The RMR is correlated to body size and gender. Determining the exact RMR for an individual is nearly impossible.

However, accurate formulas have been developed for health and fitness professionals to closely estimate the overall caloric needs for an individual. The TEF accounts for the heat loss resulting from energy consumed when the body digests carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

Also referred to as diet-induced thermogenesis, the thermic effect varies based on the macronutrient. For example, fats have a lesser thermic effect during digestion and absorption than protein and carbohydrates. The overall macronutrient composition of food consumed will also affect the TEF. The more someone moves or exercises, the more energy they will expend. Energy expenditure from physical activity can be calculated using the heart rate as compared to resting heart rate data or through diaries of physical activity.

Individuals with smart watches and activity trackers can estimate calorie burns from physical activity. Growth The body is constantly growing. Millions of cells die daily, and millions of cells are created to replace them. For babies, infants, and youth, their bodies are maturing and growing into their adult size at a rapid rate, meaning more cells are being created than are dying daily.

The energetic cost of physical growth varies at different stages of life but is an important factor in total energy expenditure of the body. The aspect of growth applies especially to pregnant women, who are not only supporting their own cell growth and turnover but also growing another human. The energy needs and expenditure of pregnant and lactating females is greater than the average but depends heavily on the stage of pregnancy or lactation.

A positive energy balance means more energy is consumed than expended. A negative energy balance means more energy is expended than consumed.

Research shows individuals who gain body weight over time have periods of time when their weight plateaus, regardless of the positive energy balance. New Steady-state Body Weight New Steady-state New Steady-state New Steady-state Time Research has shown how relatively small adjustments in energy consumption and energy expenditure can slow the onset of weight gain and, ultimately, obesity.

Simple changes such as a — kcal reduction in daily intake and incorporating — kcal of activity three or more times a week can make a difference in energy balance. On a large scale, nutrition must be balanced—calories out versus calories in. Adenosine is made up of adenine and ribose. It is attached to three phosphates, and the two bonds between the three phosphates store and release energy.

The body contains all the raw materials needed to produce ATP. The ATP is then broken down into smaller components to release energy and heat and then is recycled back to the original ATP structure, much like a puzzle that can be pieced together, taken apart, and then put together again. This process follows the first law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of conservation of energy, which states that energy can be changed from one form to another but cannot be created or destroyed.

Metabolism runs on anabolic and catabolic reactions, forming the cornerstone of human physiology. That break requires an enzyme, which causes a chemical reaction to occur. The phosphate-removal process, dephosphorylation, The process of removing a phosphate.

The process of reattaching phosphate Pi , rephosphorylation, requires the enzyme ATP synthase. This impairs muscle power and energy production in the short term but may have the long-term effect of reprogramming the cell to recycle ADP faster and reduce the oxidative stress of the process.

Muscles constantly generate protons during basic cellular metabolism, whether at rest or during activity. The body manages these hydrogen ions easily during rest or light activity by moving them into the mitochondria of the cells where their energy is harnessed to resynthesize ATP with the use of O2 and formation of water. But as exercise intensity increases and more energy is required from ATP, many more protons are released, and avoiding acidosis i.

In extreme circumstances, this bond can be used to generate needed cellular energy as well. For an individual running at an all-out sprint lasting 10—15 seconds, at that intensity and duration the body has energy needs exceeding what the ATP-ADP cycle can provide.

This reaction can occur in both directions. In extreme circumstances and with the addition of other enzymes, it can break down even further and create ammonia, which is toxic to the muscles and blood when produced in large quantities or unfiltered by the urinary system. The lone phosphate can also pose a problem since an accumulation of phosphates can cause muscle fatigue and limit physical performance.

These systems overlap in virtually everything a human does. It is important to understand each system individually and when they are the most active and how nutrients contribute to their energy output. Muscle tissues have enough stored ATP to last only a couple of seconds. However, this source is quickly depleted.

This occurs about seven seconds into the run. During glycolysis, a series of chemical reactions allow the body to break the glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules, producing a small amount of ATP for a short amount of time—around two minutes.

Once cellular acidity rises, muscle power declines. Research has shown that the end product of glycolysis is always lactic acid. The body begins with the pyruvate made through anaerobic glycolysis. With the addition of oxygen, it undergoes a complex series of steps to break down the pyruvate until it ends up in the mitochondria of the cell, where ATP is generated. This aerobic metabolism can now manufacture ATP for extended periods of time.

Adipose tissue—stored fat—can also be used as a fuel source during aerobic metabolism. The overview of the three energy systems suggests a relatively clear transition from one system to the next, but the transitions are not so definitive. These energy systems are A three-carbon structure formed by splitting a glucose molecule. The energy system most heavily recruited will depend on the immediate energy demand, but all three systems work in cooperation. There are four primary sources of energy: glucose, fatty acids, lactate, and ketones.

Whether from dietary sources or supplements or naturally occurring in the body, ketones play one key role in cellular metabolism: producing ATP. The energy system primarily in use will determine which fuel source is the most efficient for energy production. Like water inside an aquarium, cytoplasm surrounds and supports all the living material and organelles in the cell. The nucleus, which contains the deoxyribonucleic acid DNA used for growth, development, functioning, and reproduction, is the only part of the cell that is not considered part of the cytoplasm.

In muscle cells, cytoplasm is referred to as sarcoplasm. The sarcoplasm of muscle cells is important, as it is where the actions of the phosphagen system and the reaction components take place. Creatine is naturally found in muscle tissue, and maintaining average creatine stores will A molecule synthesized in the liver and kidneys assisting reformation of ATP from ADP.

All chemical reactions in the body require an enzyme to occur at a speed making them biologically viable. The enzyme serves as a lock, and the substrate—a substance like phosphocreatine—serves as the key. Every enzyme has binding sites for a substrate that are specific to that molecule. For example, glucose cannot bind at the site where phosphocreatine can bind and cause the same reaction. When the correct substrate binds to the enzyme, a reaction can occur, and a product can be created.

The substrate creatine plus a phosphate binds to the enzyme creatine kinase , which is also bound to a molecule of ADP. The phosphate is donated to the ADP when both are bound. The donation of the phosphate group to ADP immediately creates a molecule of ATP— and a single proton as a by-product of the phosphate-bond creation—which is released and stimulates the release of the lone creatine attached to the proton.

The more this cycle runs, the more protons will build up in the cytoplasm, reducing the pH of the muscle cell. The reduction of cellular pH is referred to as metabolic acidosis. Naturally, creatine is synthesized in the kidney, pancreas, and liver from the amino acids methionine, glycine, and arginine. Creatine is stored in muscle tissue but also in the brain and has been identified as a major substrate in the immune response, the epithelial cells of the airway, and in neurotransmission. Once creatine reaches the inside of the muscle cells, it is bound to phosphate through rephosphorylation and becomes the active form of phosphocreatine needed for the ATP-ADP cycle.

Glycogen is the stored form of glucose in the body, and it is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle. Glycolysis can occur both in the presence of oxygen aerobically or without oxygen anaerobically. In the presence of oxygen, the process is called oxidative phosphorylation. In the absence of oxygen, the process is called anaerobic glycolysis. Both processes produce many times more ATP than the phosphagen system. Unlike the phosphocreatine system, glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of nearly all cells in the human body, not just in muscle cells.

During glycolysis, the glucose molecule is split into two pyruvate molecules. After going through glycolysis, it is converted to NADH. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase LDH is found in the walls of cellular mitochondria. There are distinct differences in the ATP generation processes thus far. Protons are released in both glycolysis and ATP hydrolysis. The process of aerobic metabolism begins with acetyl coenzyme A acetyl-CoA after the pyruvate molecule enters the mitochondria.

Another name for the electron transport chain. An overview of aerobic metabolism is shown. In the presence of oxygen, the initial pyruvate moves into the mitochondria, interacts with acetyl-CoA, enters the Krebs cycle, and moves through the electron transport chain.

Mitochondria Mitochondria singular is mitochondrion are essential cell organelles generating most of the chemical energy needed for cellular processes. Some cells in the human body have more mitochondria than others e. Folds of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.

This specialized organelle has a dual membrane. These folds are called cristae. These organelles use their proteins, including pyruvate and acetyl-CoA, to break down oxygen and glucose—and other fuel sources—into energy, water, and carbon dioxide.

Each can be converted into acetyl-CoA, which can then enter the Krebs cycle, followed by the electron transport chain to complete aerobic metabolism. Glucose for Fuel Glycolysis splits glucose into a pair of pyruvates in the sarcoplasm of the muscle cell. With sufficient oxygen, pyruvate moves from the sarcoplasm into the mitochondria, where aerobic metabolism begins.

Pyruvate is a three-carbon structure, and it must be converted into acetylCoA, which is a two-carbon structure. When they are not needed, they may die or become inactive in the cell. Fatty Acids for Fuel Fat is stored throughout the body in three different locations.

Around the midsection, in the area between the abdominals and organs, is visceral fat i. And within the muscles Fat stored within the muscles.

Fat is stored in all three locations as triglycerides. Before they can be used for energy, triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids through a process called lipolysis. It then enters the mitochondria and produces ATP. From there it can flow into another working muscle, including the heart. Or it can move to the liver, where it is converted to pyruvate, then to glucose, and then sent back through the bloodstream to wherever it is needed. If it is not needed, the glucose can be converted to glycogen and stored in the muscles or liver to fuel future activity.

Ketones are an acidic by-product of fatty acid metabolism, produced in the liver when glucose is not available. They are a normal part of human metabolism and usually well controlled by the hormones insulin and glucagon.

Supraphysiological blood A metabolic state where high levels of ketones are in the blood due to fatty acid metabolism.

If ketones remain elevated too long, it can lead to ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal health problem. After weeks without carbohydrates, ketones could supply up to 70 percent. The heart can also use ketones for energy.

When ketone levels are high during physical activity, they can easily travel from the blood into the muscle and then into the mitochondria, where they are converted to acetyl-CoA, enter the Krebs cycle, and produce ATP.

In the initial step of the Krebs cycle, acetyl-CoA donates an acetyl group to a substrate called oxaloacetate to form the substrate citrate and two ATP molecules, thus entering the energy production cycle. The Citric Acid Cycle The Krebs cycle is also referred to as the citric acid cycle, named for one of its by-products. The cycle consists of eight consecutive steps in a closed loop, meaning the final step of the process re-creates the compound used in the initial step of the cycle.

An overview of the energyproducing cycle is shown. It is a closed loop, meaning the initial compound is created by the final step of the cycle. However, the results of the cycle feed into the next step of ATP production.

The electron transport chain uses the FADH2 and NADH from the citric acid cycle to release electrons through a series of three intermembrane transporters. The final intermembrane transporter is ATP synthase. This enzyme moves the protons back into the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space and, in the process, phosphorylates one ADP into one ATP molecule for each proton transported across the membrane.

Glucose, fatty acids, lactate, and ketones each supply a different number of carbon molecules to the initial carbon donation to the citric acid cycle. Fats are the most effective at producing ATP. There are several types of carbohydrates classified by their digestion process and they provide a large energy source for the human body.

However, too much of anything can prove harmful, so a balance must be established with the other macronutrients for a balanced and healthy diet. Figure 4. In fact, they are the main source of energy for the human body. Often referred to as carbs, they protect muscle mass protein from being catabolized during exercise and they provide the main GLUCOSE: A simple sugar made of 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6oxygen that provides energy in the body.

Glucose is a simple sugar consisting of 6 carbons, 12 hydrogens, and 6 oxygens. One molecule of glucose produces about 30 molecules of adenosine triphosphate ATP via glycolysis during cellular metabolism. There are several types of dietary carbohydrates that provide energy—for instance, simple carbohydrates, or sugars, and complex carbohydrates, or starch. Carbohydrates with 3 to 10 sub-units of sugar.

Monosaccharide carbohydrates consist of one sugar unit. They are the simplest form of sugar that make up more complex carbohydrate Complex carbohydrates that have 10 or more monosaccharide sub-units linked together.

Examples include glucose also referred to as dextrose , galactose, mannose, and fructose. Disaccharides consist of two sugar units. For example, table sugar is sucrose.

Blood sugar refers to the glucose present in the blood. Blood sugar level is influenced by the types of carbohydrates consumed. The principal monosaccharides in food are glucose and fructose. Glucose is found commonly in fruit, sweet corn, corn syrup, certain roots, and honey. It is also a subunit of some complex carbohydrates, like starch. FRUCTAN: Fructose, which is also called levulose or fruit sugar, is found as free monosaccharides in A polymer of fructose molecules found in some fruits, legumes, and vegetables.

It is also a sub-unit of the sucrose molecule, found in fruit and table sugar, and is a component of the carbohydrates known as fructan. Although both fructose and glucose are common simple sugars in the diet, they function differently as energy sources. Glucose is used more quickly and efficiently by muscles, while fructose is used more slowly. Fructose became more popular with the discovery that it does not trigger changes in blood sugar as rapidly as glucose.

Researchers realized this in the early s when they undertook the first extensive comparisons of the different carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods.

Fructose must be converted to glucose in the liver before being used by most cells in the body which explains the slower rise in blood sugar after eating fructose. Complex carbohydrates with 3 to 10 sub-units of sugar are oligosaccharides.

Some examples include raffinose and stachyose. Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that have 10 or more monosaccharide sub-units linked together. Starch, composed of amylose and amylopectin, is a main dietary complex carb. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of units of glucose. Glycogen is another polysaccharide that is used to store carbohydrate energy in the body. Regardless of the form in which glucose and other carbs are ingested, each gram of carbohydrate GLYCOGEN: A complex carbohydrate that occurs only in animals; the form in which glucose is stored in the body.

The biggest difference between types of carbs consumed is in how they are digested and used. The more complex the bonds between the units of different sugar types, the slower the digestion and absorption.

Each type of carb requires different enzymes and reactions to break them down and be metabolized. FIBER Fiber is a special type of complex carbohydrate not digested and not absorbed in the small intestine. Fiber is sometimes called roughage or non-starchy polysaccharides.

Some examples of fiber include cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, fructans, beta-glucans, and a variety of gums, mucilage, and algal polysaccharides. Fibers are usually components of plant cell walls and intracellular structures. Although largely indigestible, fiber plays an important role in the diet.

Fiber helps promote efficient intestinal functioning and aids in the absorption of sugars and other nutrients into the bloodstream. Soluble fiber dissolves in fluids in the stomach to form a thick gel-like substance.

It is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine and provides some calories, about two kilocalories per gram. Soluble fiber can interfere with the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol. This, in turn, can help lower lowdensity lipoprotein LDL cholesterol levels in the blood. It also slows digestion and the rate at which carbohydrates and other nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream which prevents rapid spikes in blood glucose after eating.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gastrointestinal tract relatively intact and is not a source of calories. Insoluble fiber provides bulk for stool formation and speeds up the movement of food and waste through the digestive system. Fiber is usually found along with digestible simple and complex carbohydrates in various plant foods, such as fruits, leaves, stalks, and the outer coverings of grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes.

Dietary fiber helps soften the stool and encourages normal elimination. Fiber-rich diets, both soluble and insoluble, also promote satiety. In addition, research has shown that people who eat high-fiber diets experience reduced rates of cardiovascular disease, colon cancer, and diabetes. It is important to include plenty of fluids in a high-fiber diet to move them through the digestive tract. The gut microbiome depends on nourishment just like any other ecosystem.

Prebiotic and probiotic supplements and foods provide nutrition to support friendly, so-called good bacteria in the gut, which can aid The specific and individualized accumulation of anaerobic bacteria and other microorganisms that populate the gastrointestinal tract.

Research suggests that gut bacteria particularly prefer fructans and cellulose. It is like the starch that is found in plants in that it consists of chains of glucose units. However, glycogen and starch differ in structure. The body converts a portion of all ingested complex carbohydrates into glycogen, replenishing its short supply. Depending on individual factors, the total glycogen supply in the body is limited to 1, to 2, calories.

The body constantly stores and releases glucose to and from glycogen. Whether glucose is released or stored depends on food ingested, time between eating, and shifting energy demands related to physical activity. They serve as reservoirs for glucose. Each ounce of glycogen is stored in the liver with about three ounces of water. This means that when glycogen is used, water is also removed from the body. Many fad diets take advantage of this phenomenon by limiting carbs and increasing protein consumption, which causes liver and muscle glycogen to become quickly depleted.

This results in a loss of several pounds of water, which many dieters mistake for a loss of bodyfat. However, research suggests that fasting can impact glycogen levels and encourage the body to use adipose tissue as an energy source. Physically active individuals sometimes have a feeling of being bogged down or mentally sluggish.

This is often due to a low level of liver glycogen. Eating an adequate amount of complex carbohydrates, especially at night, replenishes the glycogen supply and restores mental alertness and physical energy. Thorough and complete chewing of food is the first step in digestion and is important to making the process quicker and more efficient. Digestion begins in the mouth with the act of chewing, or mastication.

Chewing breaks down food mechanically by grinding it into smaller units. Saliva lubricates the bolus to help it travel down the esophagus. This enzyme is called amylase. It breaks the bonds that hold together disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and starches. Amylase also breaks down amylose and amylopectin into shorter chains of glucose—called dextrins—and maltose.

Maltose is a disaccharide that makes starches taste sweet. Only about 5 percent of starches are broken down in the mouth. The mechanical breakdown continues in the stomach and prevents the presence of excess glucose in the mouth that can lead to dental caries.

The contraction and relaxation of the stomach mixes carbohydrates into a substance called chyme. This includes pancreatic amylase, which helps to break the dextrins into shorter chains. Enzymes excreted from the villi in the intestinal walls—lactase, maltase, and sucrase—break down specific molecules.

VILLI: Fingerlike projections on the inside surface of the intestines that absorb nutrients and secrete enzymes. Once these carbohydrate chains have been broken down into simple sugar units, they are transported into the intestinal cells called enterocytes.

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Home PDF Books. Next Post Previous Post. No Comment. These study guides are life-saving. This is a fantastic certification no doubt about it. Keep up the amazing work! That is so awesome! In the end are you going with the international sports sciences Association? By studying and knowing the 50pg fasttrack book alone, is that really sufficent enough to pass the exam as they claim?

Hey Lyn, For the most part, the fast track guide from the international sports Sciences Association is pretty legitimate. Overall, the exam is pretty easy compared to other personal training certifications as everything is done online.

So, I would not be so worried. Hi, is it just me or are the practice questions for the quizzes and the questions in the workbook for the quizzes completely different from the actual quiz questions for the ISSA website quizzes? Hey mimi, the question should be radically different.

On the real exam you will see lots of different questions getting pulled from lots of different chapters. They come from a large pool of questions so you should be prepared from anything that you see in the textbook. If so than would you please make it available and send to my email. Your response would be appreciated. You can get the study cheat sheet for free, just sign up to my email list from the link that says get your free exam cheat sheet on this page.

After signing up for my email list, you will be emailed the access to get the cheat sheet. Check your inbox. Hi Tyler, thanks for this article, it was very useful. I have just graduated from high school and have been into fitness for the past four years.

Over this time, I have learned about training methods, exercise technique, periodization, etc; and I have become good at explaining these things to people who have less experience. Yes, absolutely you should have no trouble studying for the international sports Sciences Association certification. Just focused time studying and you will do just fine on the exam.

Good luck with your personal training career Cameron. Of can you get your study guides only and not take the ISSA course to save money? These are in addition to the international sports Sciences Association. This will help you study for the exam, but you still need to purchase and pass their exam in order to get the certification. Im bit scared to not understand all vocab in english.

Thank you. Hi there, both of those would be great. Good luck with your studies. Do you recommend using the study guide as I read each unit, or read each unit, then consult the study guide? Or is this more preferential?

I find that taking and reviewing loads of notes are quite taxing, so I was wondering if I could just read this study as I go along the course, and add things that I personally see fit, instead of taking copious amounts of notes Thank you, Alan.

The way I typically recommend going about studying for any personal training certification is to try to read the chapter first, and then come through using a study guide. Your email address will not be published. Welcome to the one and only ISSA personal trainer certification exam study guide. Navigation and study tips. Recommendations on combining this study material with other ISSA study materials.

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I hope you get great use out of these free ISSA study materials and good luck studying! I hope this helps. Hey Ali, I am going to be releasing an article on exam prep for the international sports sciences Association exam very very soon.

Probably in the next day or two so stay tuned. Thanks for the awesome comment. Good luck studying for the final exam for ISSA! Thank you so much for this page and what you do!

I would never had realized how accessible my dream was were it not for your page helping in the decision making process! These study guides are life-saving.

This is a fantastic certification no doubt about it. Keep up the amazing work! That is so awesome! In the end are you going with the international sports sciences Association?

By studying and knowing the 50pg fasttrack book alone, is that really sufficent enough to pass the exam as they claim? Hey Lyn, For the most part, the fast track guide from the international sports Sciences Association is pretty legitimate.

Overall, the exam is pretty easy compared to other personal training certifications as everything is done online. So, I would not be so worried. Hi, is it just me or are the practice questions for the quizzes and the questions in the workbook for the quizzes completely different from the actual quiz questions for the ISSA website quizzes?

Hey mimi, the question should be radically different. On the real exam you will see lots of different questions getting pulled from lots of different chapters. They come from a large pool of questions so you should be prepared from anything that you see in the textbook. If so than would you please make it available and send to my email. Your response would be appreciated. You can get the study cheat sheet for free, just sign up to my email list from the link that says get your free exam cheat sheet on this page.

After signing up for my email list, you will be emailed the access to get the cheat sheet. Check your inbox. Hi Tyler, thanks for this article, it was very useful. I have just graduated from high school and have been into fitness for the past four years. Over this time, I have learned about training methods, exercise technique, periodization, etc; and I have become good at explaining these things to people who have less experience.

Yes, absolutely you should have no trouble studying for the international sports Sciences Association certification. Just focused time studying and you will do just fine on the exam. Good luck with your personal training career Cameron. Of can you get your study guides only and not take the ISSA course to save money? These are in addition to the international sports Sciences Association.

This will help you study for the exam, but you still need to purchase and pass their exam in order to get the certification. Im bit scared to not understand all vocab in english. Thank you. Hi there, both of those would be great. Good luck with your studies. So you can access them as many times as you want, with or without internet connection.

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ISSA Nutritionist Certification Review - Worth it in 2023? ????

WebJul 11,  · is issa nutrition accredited We think that this PDF book will be very helpful for the students of this subject. So download the book you need from the link given . WebISSA E-Books Browse our catalog of FREE ISSA E-Books! See Our Catalog Training Nutrition Business ISSA Resource Materials Training Browse our E-Books dedicated to . WebAnyone know where I could find free content on fitness. I wanna start reading to make sure this career is for me. If anyone knows where I can find the ISSA The Complete Guide .