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This cookie is set by Facebook to deliver advertisement when they are on Facebook or a digital platform powered by Facebook advertising after visiting this website. This cookie is a browser ID cookie set by Linked share Buttons and ad tags. This cookie is set by Drift. English medium instruction in higher education in Asia-Pacific: From policy to pedagogy. Springer International Publishing. McIlwraith, C.

Diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy in the horse 4th ed. Winfree, L. Understanding crime: Essentials of criminological theory 3rd ed. Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Edited books, when referred to as a whole book not chapters of an edited book :. Nussbaum, M. Subversion and sympathy: Gender, law, and the British novel. Oxford UP. Gould, J. Birds of Australia Vol.

Ormerod, J. Maudie and Bear: 10th Anniversary Edition. Hardie Grant. In-text citations for non-standard authors: Whoever is in the "author" position of the refence in the references list is treated like an author in text. So, for example, if you had an edited book and the editors of the book were in the "author" position at the beginning of the reference, you would treat them exactly the same way as you would an author - do not include any other information.

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Descriptions should be provided, however, in accessible terms in relation to the readership. The procedures that support methodological integrity i. Issues of methodological integrity include the following: Assess the adequacy of the data in terms of the ability to capture forms of diversity most relevant to the question, research goals, and inquiry approach.

Demonstrate that findings are grounded in the evidence e. Demonstrate that the contributions are insightful and meaningful e. Provide relevant contextual information for findings e. Present findings in a coherent manner that makes sense of contradictions or disconfirming evidence in the data e. Demonstrate consistency with regard to the analytic processes e. If alterations in methodological integrity were made for ethical reasons, explicate those reasons and the adjustments made. Describe how support for claims was supplemented by any checks added to the qualitative analysis.

Approaches to inquiry have different traditions in terms of using checks and which checks are most valued. Describe research findings e. Demonstrate the analytic process of reaching findings e. Present synthesizing illustrations e. Photographs or links to videos can be used. Guidance for Authors Findings presented in an artistic manner e. Use quotes or excerpts to augment data description e. Guidance for Reviewers Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish The Findings section tends to be longer than in quantitative papers because of the demonstrative rhetoric needed to permit the evaluation of the analytic procedure.

Discussion Discussion Subsections Describe the central contributions and their significance in advancing disciplinary understandings. Describe the types of contributions made by findings e. Identify similarities and differences from prior theories and research findings. Reflect on any alternative explanations of the findings. Describe the limits of the scope of transferability e. Revisit any ethical dilemmas or challenges that were encountered, and provide related suggestions for future researchers.

Consider the implications for future research, policy, or practice. Guidance for Reviewers Accounts could lead to multiple solutions rather than a single one.

Many qualitative approaches hold that there may be more than one valid and useful set of findings from a given data set. Authors must decide how sections should be organized within the context of their specific study. For example, qualitative researchers may combine the Results and Discussion sections because they may not find it possible to separate a given finding from its interpreted meaning within a broader context.

As long as the necessary information is present, the paper does not need to be segmented into the same sections and subsections as a quantitative paper.

Qualitative papers may appear different from quantitative papers because they tend to be longer. This added length is due to the following central features of qualitative reporting: a In place of referencing statistical analyses, researchers must include detailed rationales and procedural descriptions to explain how an analytic method was selected, applied, and adapted to fit each specific question or context; b researchers must include a discussion of their own backgrounds and beliefs and how they managed them throughout the study; and c researchers must show how they moved from Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish their raw data to develop findings by adding quoted materials or other demonstrative evidence into their presentation of results.

Because qualitative articles need to be lengthier to provide the information necessary to support an adequate review, limitations on length should be more flexible than they are for quantitative articles, which may not need to include this information. When journal page limits conflict with the length of a qualitative paper, qualitative researchers should work with journal editors to reach a solution that enables an adequate review of the paper in question. Research Design Overview. The Method section of a qualitative article begins with a paragraph that summarizes the research design.

It might mention the data-collection strategies, data-analytic strategies, and approaches to inquiry and provide a brief rationale for the design selected if this was not described in the objectives section of the introduction see Section 3.

Researcher Description. To situate the investigation within the expectations, identities, and positions of the researchers e. Participants or Other Data Sources. When describing participants or data sources, the following information should be reported: number of participants, documents, or events that were analyzed; demographic or Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish cultural information relevant to the research topic; and perspectives of participants and characteristics of data sources relevant to the research topic.

As applicable, data sources should be described e. Information about data repositories used for openly shared data should be reported if used. The processes entailed in performing archival searches or locating data for analysis should be described as well.

Qualitative researchers should report participant characteristics listed in Section 3. The descriptions of participant characteristics should be sensitive to the participants and the ways in which they understand and express their identities, statuses, histories, and so forth.

Chapter 5 contains further guidance on writing about participant characteristics without bias. In addition to participant characteristics and personal history factors, other features within a study may influence the experience of a given phenomenon e. In this way, reporting considerations may be experientially, theoretically, and empirically driven.

ResearcheróParticipant Relationships. To increase transparency, describe the relationships and interactions between researchers and participants that are relevant to the research process and any impact on the research process e. Existing relationships may be helpful e. Participant Recruitment. There is no minimum number of participants for a qualitative study see Levitt et al. Authors should provide a rationale for the number of participants chosen, often in light of the method or approach to inquiry that is used.

Some studies begin with researchers recruiting participants to the study and then selecting participants from the pool that responds. Other studies begin with researchers selecting a type of participant pool and then recruiting from within that pool. Specifically, participant selection might follow participant recruitment or vice versa; thus, discussion of the number of participants is likely to be placed in reference to whichever process came second.

Recruitment Process. Report the method of recruitment e. For instance, researchers might describe a broader study aim to participants e. Provide details on any incentives or compensation given to participants, and state relevant ethical processes of data collection and consent, potentially describing institutional review board approval, any adaptations for vulnerable populations, or safety monitoring practices.

Present the process for determining the number of participants in relation to the study design e. Any changes in this number through attrition e.

Participant Selection. This selection process can consist of purposive sampling methods, such as maximum variation; convenience sampling methods, such as snowball selection; theoretical sampling; or diversity sampling.

Provide the general context for your study e. If you selected participants from an archived data set, describe the recruitment and selection process for that data set and any decisions affecting the selection of participants from that data set.

Data Collection. Data-Collection or Identification Procedures. In addition to describing the form of data collected e. It may not be useful to reproduce all of the questions asked in an interview, especially in the case of unstructured or semi-structured interviews in which questions are adapted to the content of each interview.

The content of central or guiding questions should be communicated, however, and the format of the questions can be described e. Describe the process of data selection or data collection e. Describe the management or use of reflexivity in the datacollection process when it illuminates the study.

Recording and Data Transformation. Identify how data were recorded for analysis and explain whether and how data were transformed. This might include a statement regarding audio or visual recording methods, field notes, or transcription. The two primary topics to report in the description of qualitative analyses are the data analysis and the establishment of methodological Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish integrity.

Researchers may use terms for data analysis that are coherent within their research approach and process e. Descriptions should be provided, however, in terms that are accessible to readers. Data-Analytic Strategies. Describe the methods and procedures of data analysis and the purpose or goal for which they were used.

Explain in detail the process of analysis. Describe the process of arriving at an analytic approach e. Also include a discussion of analytic procedures e. In this description, identify units of analysis e.

Indicate whether any categories or codes emerged from the analyses or were developed a priori, and outline the process used in each case. Provide illustrations and descriptions of their development, if relevant. Methodological Integrity. Highlight procedures that support methodological integrity throughout the paper or summarize central points in a separate section of the Method section when elaboration or emphasis would be helpful for more on methodological integrity, see Levitt et al.

Demonstrate that the claims made from the analysis are warranted. Highlight key features of methodological integrity, as follows: adequacy: Assess the adequacy of the data in terms of their ability to capture forms of diversity most relevant to the research questions, research goals, and inquiry approach.

Support for claims of methodological integrity may be supplemented by any checks added to the qualitative analysis. The following are examples of supplemental checks that can strengthen the research: transcripts or data returned to participants for feedback; triangulation across multiple sources of information, findings, or investigators; checks on interview thoroughness or interviewer demands; consensus or auditing processes; member checks or participant feedback on findings; data displays or matrices; in-depth thick description, case examples, and illustrations; structured methods of researcher reflexivity e.

Descriptions of results often include quotes, evidence, or excerpts that demonstrate the process of data analysis and of reaching findings e.

These should not replace the description of the findings of the analysis, however. Instead, balance these illustrations with text descriptions that make clear the meanings drawn from individual quotes or excerpts and how they answer the study question. Compatibility With Study Design. Findings should be presented in a manner that is compatible with the study design. For instance, findings of a grounded theory study might be described using categories organized in a hierarchical form and marked by discrete divisions, whereas findings of an ethnographic study might be written in a chronological narrative format.

Also, findings should be written in a style that is coherent with the approach to inquiry used. Depictions of Findings. Qualitative findings can be presented in various ways. Illustrations e. Photographs or links to videos can be used as well see Sections 2. Findings presented in an artistic manner e. In this process, the interpretations of the findings are described in a way that takes into account the limitations of the study as well as plausible alternative explanations.

The Discussion section conveys applications of your findings and provides directions for future investigators. If you present multiple studies, discuss the findings in the order in which they are presented within the paper. Interpreting the Meaning of Your Findings. To do this, describe the central contributions of your research and their significance in advancing disciplinary understandings. Identifying similarities and differences from prior theories and research findings will help in this process.

Describe the contributions the findings make e. Reflect on any alternative explanations of the findings to clarify the strengths and weaknesses of the explanation that you selected. More than one valid or useful set of findings may emerge from a given data set. It is not considered a drawback for there to be more than one possible interpretation because researchers may centralize different processes or perspectives; however, findings should remain grounded in the empirical analysis of the data.

Include a subsection to identify the strengths and limitations of the study e. Within this subsection, describe the limits of the scope of generalizability or transferability e. Convey to readers how your findings might be used and their implications.

In this process, you might outline emerging research questions, theoretical insights, new understandings, or methodological designs that advantage the conceptualization, implementation, review, or Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish reporting of future studies. In addition, implications for policy, clinical practice, and advocacy can be communicated to assist readers in implementing your findings.

Two features of qualitative meta-analysis reporting highlighted in this section are reporting on the aggregative process and reporting situatedness. Reporting on the Aggregative Process. The methodological integrity of the results of meta-analyses rests largely on the extent to which those carrying out the analysis can detail and defend the choices they made of studies to review and the process they undertook to weigh and integrate the findings of the studies.

Authors of meta-analyses often aggregate qualitative studies from multiple methodological or theoretical approaches, and they must communicate the approaches of the studies they reviewed as well as their own approach to secondary data analysis. Qualitative meta-analysis involves the interpretive aggregation of thematic findings rather than reanalysis of primary data. Forms of qualitative meta-analysis range on a continuum from assessing the ways findings do or do not replicate each other to arranging interpreted findings into narrative accounts that relate the studies to one another.

Authors of meta-analyses enhance their fidelity to the findings by considering the contradictions and ambiguities within and across studies. Reporting Situatedness. Another factor that distinguishes qualitative metaanalyses from primary qualitative analyses is that they often include an examination of the situatedness of the authors of the primary studies reviewed e.

See the online table for complete information on reporting qualitative meta-analyses. The basic expectations for reporting mixed methods research are presented in Table 3. Standards specific to quantitative and qualitative research are presented in Sections 3. Guidance for Authors Refrain from using words that are either qualitative e.

Reference the mixed methods, qualitative methods, and quantitative methods used. Guidance for Authors Specify the type of mixed methods design used. See the note on types of designs in the Research Design Overview section of this table. Consider using one keyword that describes the type of mixed methods design and one that describes the problem addressed. Describe your approach es to inquiry and, if relevant, how intersecting approaches to inquiry are combined when this description will facilitate the review process and intelligibility of your paper.

If your work is not grounded in a specific approach es to inquiry or your approach would be too complicated to explain in the allotted word count, however, it would not be advisable to provide explication on this point in the abstract.

Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish Guidance for Authors This section may convey barriers in the literature that suggest a need for both qualitative and quantitative data. Guidance for Reviewers Theory or conceptual framework use in mixed methods varies depending on the specific mixed methods design or procedures used. Theory may be used inductively or deductively or both in mixed methods research. Order these goals to reflect the type of mixed methods design used.

Describe the ways approaches to inquiry were combined, as it illuminates the objectives and mixed methods rationale e. Guidance for Reviewers A mixed methods objective, aim, or goal may not be familiar to reviewers. For instance, the goal of a qualitative phase could be the development of a conceptual model, the goal of a quantitative phase could be hypothesis testing based upon that model, and the goal of the mixed methods phase could be to generate integrated support for a theory based upon quantitative and qualitative evidence.

Identify the type of mixed methods design used and define it. Indicate the qualitative approach to inquiry and the quantitative design used within the mixed methods design type e. If multiple approaches to inquiry were combined, describe how this was done and provide a rationale e. Provide a rationale or justification for the need to collect both qualitative and quantitative data and the added value of integrating the results findings from the two data sets.

Guidance for Reviewers Because mixed methods research is a relatively new methodology, it is helpful to provide a definition of it from a major reference in the field. Mixed methods research involves rigorous methods, both qualitative and quantitative. Refer to the qualitative and quantitative standards for details of rigor. One of the most widely discussed topics in the mixed methods literature would be research designs. There is not a generic mixed methods design but rather multiple types of designs.

Basic, core designs include convergent design, explanatory sequential design, and exploratory sequential design.

Although the names and types of designs may differ among mixed methods writers, a common understanding is that the procedures for conducting a mixed methods study may differ from one project to another.

Further, these basic procedures can be expanded by linking mixed methods to other designs e. When data are collected from multiple sources, clearly identify the sources of qualitative and quantitative data e. State the data sources in the order of procedures used in the design type e.

Guidance for Authors Because multiple sources of data are collected, separate descriptions of samples are needed when they differ. A table of qualitative sources and quantitative sources is helpful. This table could include type of data, when data were collected, and from whom. Describe the qualitative and the quantitative sampling in separate sections. Relate the order of the sections to the procedures used in the mixed methods design type. Discuss the recruitment strategy for qualitative and quantitative research separately.

Devote separate sections to the qualitative data analysis, the quantitative data analysis, and the mixed methods analysis. Indicate methodological integrity, quantitative validity and reliability, and mixed methods validity or legitimacy. Further assessments of mixed methods integrity are also indicated to show the quality of the research process and the inferences drawn from the intersection of the quantitative and qualitative data. Guidance for Authors In mixed methods research, the Findings section typically includes sections on qualitative findings, quantitative results, and mixed methods results.

This section should mirror the type of mixed methods design in terms of sequence i. This enables researchers to directly compare results or to see how results differ between the quantitative and qualitative strands. It also reflects on the implications of the integrated findings from across the two methods.

In mixed methods research, the thoughtful integration of qualitative findings and quantitative results leads to a deeper understanding of the data and enhanced insights. In addition, authors can publish multiple papers from a single mixed methods study, such as a qualitative study paper, a quantitative study paper, and a mixed methods overview paper. Incorporating Both Quantitative and Qualitative Standards.

The thoughtful and robust use of mixed methods requires researchers to meet the standards of both quantitative and qualitative research methodology in the design, implementation, and reporting stages. Typically, additional mixed methods standards also need to be met along with quantitative and qualitative standards.

Reflecting on the Gains From Integration. The standards for mixed methods designs emphasize the need to not only present both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the research but also describe their integration throughout the sections of the paper.

The mixed methods guidelines assist authors in describing the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Authors should convey not only how the qualitative and quantitative methods contribute to the study goals but also how they enhance one another to provide a greater depth of understanding or further the research aims.

The JARS website has additional tables for other research designs, including experimental e. Establishing a tone that conveys the essential points of your work in an interesting way will engage readers and communicate your ideas effectively.

Precise, clear word choice and sentence structure also contribute to the creation of a substantive, impactful work. In this chapter, we provide guidance on achieving the four qualities of effective scholarly writing: continuity, flow, conciseness, and clarity. This is followed by general rules for grammar and usage and suggested strategies for improving your writing.

Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish Effective Scholarly Writing Being able to communicate ideas clearly and succinctly is a recipe for success for all writers, be they students submitting assignments to their instructor or professionals submitting manuscripts to a journal. Effective scholarly writing balances continuity and flow with conciseness and clarity.

By implementing the techniques and principles described in Sections 4. Inconsistencies, contradictions, omissions, and irrelevancies in your writing style and presentation of ideas can make your arguments seem less credible. A work that lacks continuity and flow may seem disorganized or confusing, and details may seem incomplete or inconsistent. Readers will better understand your ideas if you aim for continuity in words, concepts, and thematic development from the opening statement to the conclusion.

Explain relationships between ideas clearly, and present ideas in a logical order to improve the readability of your paper. When editing your writing, use additional transitional devices to make it less choppy.

Text that sounds choppy or disjointed may indicate that you have abandoned an argument or theme prematurelyóinstead consider amplifying its discussion. Punctuation marks contribute to continuity and flow by signaling transitions and demonstrating relationships between ideas.

They also reflect the pauses, inflections, subordination, and pacing normally heard in speech. Use the full range of punctuation.

Neither overuse nor underuse one type of punctuation, such as commas or dashes: Overuse may annoy readers, whereas underuse may cause confusion. Instead, use punctuation to support meaning. Likewise, transitional words and phrases help maintain the flow of ideas, especially when the material is complex or abstract. For example, using a pronoun that refers to a noun in the preceding sentence not only serves as a transition but also avoids repetition.

Be sure the referent is obvious. Writers often overuse adverbs, so ask yourself whether the introduction or transition is needed.

Although skillful hyphenation can clarify the relationships between words, often the best option is to untangle the string. One approach to untangling is to move the final noun earlier in the string and show relationships between the other nouns by using verbs and prepositions.

Authors seeking publication and students completing assignments increase their chances of success when they write concisely. Likewise, writing that is clear and precise is more accurate and transparent. In combination, conciseness and clarity in your writing ensure that readers understand your meaning. Some writers may fear that writing concisely will make their papers too short. If your paper is too short when written concisely, your ideas and themes may need to be further developed to add substance.

Where possible, tighten language to eliminate wordiness, redundancy see Section 4. Shorten or eliminate overly detailed descriptions of equipment or apparatus, participants, or procedures beyond those called for in journal article reporting standards; see Chapter 3 ; elaborations of the obvious; and irrelevant observations or asides. Information that would cause the paper to be too long and is not essential to understanding the researchóbut would nonetheless be helpful to a subset of readersómay be placed, when appropriate, in supplemental materials see Section 2.

Short words and short sentences are easier to comprehend than long ones see Section 4. A long technical term, however, may be more precise than several short words, and technical terms are inseparable from scientific reporting.

However, a paper with too much jargon or terminology familiar to only a few specialists does not sufficiently contribute to the literature because its meaning is obfuscated see Section 4. Rather, the technical terms in a paper should be either readily understood by readers across disciplines or defined for readers who may be unfamiliar with them. Be deliberate in your word choices, making certain that every word means exactly what you intend. Likewise, using a word with multiple meanings can cause confusion.

Choose words and phrases carefully, and specify the intended meaning if there is potential for ambiguity. If you use a word or phrase multiple times, do so consistently e. Some writers deliberately use synonyms or nearsynonyms to avoid repeating a word or phrase. The intention is commendable, but in practice the use of synonyms can lead to imprecision: By using synonyms, you may unintentionally suggest a subtle difference.

Therefore, use synonyms with care. Word choice is especially important when talking about people who are members of specific groups, such as in a Method section. Carefully consider the descriptors you use, making sure they are accurate, consistent with current preferred terminology, and in line with how the individuals you are writing about describe themselves. In no case should you use biased, pejorative, or demeaning language see Chapter 5 for guidelines on using bias-free language.

Strive for a professional tone and professional language see Sections 4. Use metaphors sparingly; although they can help simplify complicated ideas, metaphors can also be distracting or unclear.

Avoid mixed metaphors e. Use figurative expressions with restraint and colorful expressions with care; because these expressions can be open to interpretation and even cultural differences, they generally do not add to understanding for all possible readers. Instead, make direct, logical comparisons see Section 4. Unconstrained wordiness lapses into embellishment and flowery writing, which are inappropriate in academic style.

Consider the following examples of wordy and concise language: Wordy Concise at the present time now for the purpose of for, to there were several students who completed several students completed Whereas wordiness refers to using more words than are necessary, redundancy means using multiple words with the same meaning.

Writers often use redundant language to be emphatic. Instead, use sentence structure to convey emphasis, for example, by placing the words to be emphasized at the beginning or end of a sentence. When possible and appropriate for the context, use the active voice see Section 4. In the following examples, the highlighted words are redundant and should be omitted: they were both alike one and the same a sum total in close proximity to four different groups saw completely unanimous were exactly the same as positioned very close absolutely essential period of time has been previously found summarize briefly small in size the reason is because 4.

Overuse of short, simple sentences produces choppy prose, however, and overuse of long, involved sentences results in difficult, sometimes incomprehensible, Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish language. Varied sentence length helps readers maintain interest and comprehension.

When involved concepts require long sentences, the components should proceed logically. Avoid including multiple ideas in a single sentence; instead, break the sentence into shorter ones. Direct, declarative sentences with simple, common words are usually best. Similar cautions apply to paragraph length. Single-sentence paragraphs are abrupt and should be used infrequently. Paragraphs that are too long i.

A new paragraph signals a shift to a new idea and provides a pause for readersóa chance to assimilate one step in the conceptual development before beginning another. Look for a logical place or places to break up a long paragraph or reorganize the material. When writing a scholarly paper, keep in mind that scientific prose and creative or literary writing serve different purposes. Devices that are often used in creative writingófor example, setting up ambiguity; inserting the unexpected; omitting the expected; and suddenly shifting the topic, tense, or personódo not support the objective of clear communication in scientific writing.

Similarly, devices or embellishments that attract attention to words and sounds instead of to ideas are inappropriate in scientific writing. Thus, when describing your research, present the ideas and findings in a direct, straightforward manner, while also aiming for an interesting and compelling styleófor example, by fully elaborating on an idea or concept see Section 4.

Use language that conveys professionalism and formality see Section 4. One way to achieve the right tone is to imagine a specific reader you intend to reach and write in a way that will inform and persuade that individual.

For Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish example, your reader might be a researcher in a related field who is trying to keep abreast of the literature but is not familiar with the jargon or insider perspectives of your field. Contractionsóshortened forms of one or two words in which an apostrophe is used in place of missing lettersó generally do not appear in scholarly writing because they convey an informal tone.

To avoid contractions and improve your writing, evaluate words with apostrophes carefully. However, contractions can be appropriately used in some circumstances, such as in reproducing a direct quotation that contains a contraction e. Likewise, avoid colloquialisms, which are informal expressions used in everyday speech and writing e. Approximations weaken statements, especially those describing empirical observations. Instead, use precise, scholarly language.

Overuse of jargon, even in papers in which that vocabulary is relevant, hinders comprehension. Jargon also may be euphemistic if substituted for a familiar term e.

Bureaucratic jargon has had the greatest publicity, but academic or scientific jargon may also grate on readers, encumber communication, and waste space. Ensure that the language you use allows readers to understand your writing even if they are not experts in your field, and define on first use any specialized terms that are key to your topic.

Ambiguous or illogical comparisons result from the omission of key words or from nonparallel structure see Section 4. Or does it mean that year-olds were more likely to play with age peers and less likely to play with 6-year-olds? Correct Incorrect Rationale Pairs of rats cage mates were allowed to forage together. Rat couples cage mates were allowed to forage together.

The theory addresses The theory concludes A theory might address, indicate, or present, but it is the researchers not the theory itself who conclude. However, many acceptable constructions in widespread use do not constitute anthropomorphism because they do not impede understanding or mislead readers. Determining what constitutes anthropomorphism can be challenging, and even distinguished scholars may disagree. In ambiguous cases, we recommend that authors keep the principle of clear communication at the forefront of their word choice and sentence structure.

Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish Grammar and Usage Incorrect grammar and careless construction of sentences distract readers, introduce ambiguity, and impede clear communication. The examples in this section represent common grammar and usage errors that often appear in papers submitted to journal editors and academic instructors.

The present perfect tense is appropriate to express a past action or condition that did not occur at a specific, definite time or to describe an action beginning in the past and continuing to the present. Use verb tenses consistently, and stay within the chosen tense to ensure smooth expression.

Sudden, unnecessary shifts in verb tense in the same paragraph or in adjacent paragraphs may confuse readers. Use the verb tenses shown in Table 4. Table 4. In the active voice, the subject of a sentence is presented Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish first, followed by the verb and then the object of the verb e. Choose voice carefully. Both the active and passive voices are permitted in APA Style, but many writers overuse the passive voice.

Use the active voice as much as possible to create direct, clear, and concise sentences. For example, use the active voice to describe the actions of participants and others involved in your study see Section 5.

When it is important to know who performed the action, use the active voice. Use the indicative mood to make factual statements e. Use the subjunctive mood only to describe conditions that are contrary to fact or improbable; do not use the subjunctive to describe simple conditions or contingencies. Correct Incorrect Rationale If the campus were larger, we would have had access to more participants. If the campus was larger, we would have had access to more participants.

The campus is not in fact larger; the writer is only wishing that this were so. Incorrect: The percentage of correct responses, as well as the speed of the responses, increase with practice. Collective Nouns. Collective nouns e. If the action of the verb applies to the group as a whole, treat the noun as singular and use a singular verb.

If the action of the verb applies to members of the group as individuals, treat the noun as plural and use a plural verb. The context i. Singular in context: The number of people in the state is growing. A pair of animals was in each cage. Plural in context: A number of people are watching. A pair of animals were then yoked. When the noun that follows it is singular, use a singular verb; when the noun is plural, use a plural verb.

Singular in context: None of the information was correct. Plural in context: None of the children were finished in the time allotted. Correct: Neither the participants nor the confederate was in the room. Neither the confederate nor the participants were in the room.

Incorrect: Neither the participants nor the confederate were in the room. To avoid ambiguity in attribution, use the first person rather than the third person when describing the work you did as part of your research and when expressing your own views. In the following example, Sonia J. Sonia J. Cousteau, who is a speech-language pathologist, trained all testers.

Keep in mind that if you refer to coauthors by name in the text of your manuscript, you may need to mark out their names each time they appear if your paper is to undergo masked review see Section Substitute a more specific noun or clarify your usage.

Correct: Psychological researchers typically study decision making in a laboratory setting. Incorrect: We typically study decision making in a laboratory setting.

Correct: As nurses, we tend to rely on. Incorrect: We tend to rely on. Jamie shared their experiences as a genderqueer person. A child should learn to play by themselves [or themself] as well as with friends. Rowan, a transgender person, helped themselves [or themself] to the free coffee.

For further discussion of gender and pronoun usage, see Section 5. Keep in mind that there are typically many possible ways to write a sentence. Strategy Gender neutral Gender biased Rephrasing When an individual attends psychotherapy, that person can improve emotional regulation.

Therapy can help an individual improve emotional regulation. When an individual attends psychotherapy, she can improve emotional regulation. Using plural nouns or plural pronouns Therapists who are too much like their clients can lose their objectivity.

A therapist who is too much like his client can lose his objectivity. Replacing the pronoun with an article A researcher must apply for the grant by September 1. A researcher must apply for his grant by September 1. Dropping the pronoun The researcher must avoid letting biases and expectations influence the interpretation of the results.

The researcher must avoid letting her own biases and expectations influence the interpretation of the results. Correct: The students who completed the task Correct: The instructions that were included Incorrect: The students that completed the task Use neuter pronouns to refer to animals e.

However, it is acceptable to use gendered pronouns if Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish the animal has been named and its sex is known, as in the following example: The chimps were tested daily. Sheba was tested unrestrained in an open testing area, which was her usual context for training and testing. You can determine whether a pronoun is the subject or object of a verb by turning the subordinate clause around and substituting a personal pronoun.

The sentence with the substitution is a way to verify whether the original sentence is correct. They passed the exam and were given course credit. Incorrect Eligible participants were mothers, each of who had a child under the age of 21 with cancer. Eligible participants were mothers; each of they had a child under the age of 21 with cancer.

Eligible participants were mothers; each of them had a child under the age of 21 with cancer. Incorrect The participants whom passed the exam were given course credit.

Them passed the exam and were given course credit. Restrictive clauses are not set off with commas. Nonrestrictive clauses are set off with commas.

In the example, all interviews were conducted at the offices, and all offices provided suitable privacy. Select these conjunctions with care; interchanging conjunctions with more than one meaning may reduce the precision of your writing.

Individual goal striving in late adulthood may enrich life while reducing stagnation and boredom. Goal progress predicted well-being for all genders, but the associations tended to be stronger for women. Imprecise: While goal progress predicted well-being for all genders, the associations tended to be stronger for women. Imprecise: Participants were leaving since the light turned green. Having modifiers without clear referents can make it hard for readers to follow the logic of your sentence.

Misplaced Modifiers. Because of their placement in a sentence, misplaced modifiers ambiguously or illogically modify a word. Eliminate misplaced modifiers by placing an adjective or an adverb as close as possible to the word it modifies. Correct Incorrect Rationale Using this procedure, the investigator tested the participants.

The investigator tested the participants using this procedure. The incorrect sentence is unclear about whether the investigator or the participants used this procedure. Based on this assumption, we developed a model.

On the basis of this assumption, we developed a model. Based on this assumption, the model. Correct Incorrect Rationale These data provide only a partial answer. These data only provide a partial answer. The answer is partial, not the providing of it. Squinting modifiers are a type of misplaced modifier. Because of their ambiguous placement, they make it difficult to tell whether the modifier refers to the phrase before or after the modifier.

Correct Incorrect Rationale My comprehension is improved when I read slowly. Reading books slowly improves my comprehension. It is unclear whether the reading or the improvement is slow. Dangling modifiers have no referent in the sentence. Many of these result from the use of the passive voice see Section 4. You can avoid many dangling modifiers by writing in the active voice. Correct Incorrect Rationale Using this procedure, I tested the participants.

The participants were tested using this procedure. I, not the participants, used the procedure. Armitage and Martinez found that the treatment group performed better, a result congruent with those of other studies. Congruent with other studies, Armitage and Martinez found that the treatment group performed better. The result, not Armitage and Martinez, is congruent. Use parallel structure in compound sentences, series and lists see Sections 6. Repetition of Parallel Elements. Ensure that all elements of the parallelism are present before and after the coordinating conjunction e.

When a clause has two parts and not three or more , do not use a comma or semicolon before the conjunction. Correct: Ford found that homework is positively related to achievement and that the association is stronger in middle and high school than in elementary school. Incorrect: Ford found that homework is positively related to achievement, and that the association is stronger in middle and high school than in elementary school.

Coordinating Conjunctions Used in Pairs. Incorrect: We recorded the difference between the performance of participants who completed the first task and the second task. Correct: between 2. Incorrect: The names were difficult both to pronounce as well as to spell. Incorrect: Neither the responses to the auditory stimuli nor to the tactile stimuli were repeated.

Correct: The respondents either gave the worst answer or gave the best answer. Correct: The respondents gave either the worst answer or the best answer. Incorrect: The respondents either gave the worst answer or the best answer. Incorrect: It is not only surprising that pencil-and-paper scores predicted this result but also that all other predictors were less accurate.

Elements in a Series. Elements in a series should also be parallel in form. Correct: The participants were told to make themselves comfortable, to read the instructions, and to ask about anything they did not understand. Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish Incorrect: The participants were told to make themselves comfortable, to read the instructions, and that they should ask about anything they did not understand. In this section, we recommend strategies to improve your writing.

These strategies can aid both professionals preparing manuscripts for journal submission and students preparing papers for course submission. For instance, a student tasked with writing a literature review would benefit from reading other literature reviews including the literature review sections of longer works to see the various ways in which information can be organized and discussed.

Likewise, an author who needs to present complex statistical information in a table would benefit from seeing how other authors have organized similar information in their tables. Careful reading in your chosen area of study will help you learn about not only new developments in the field but also ways to effectively convey information on the page.

Creating and using an outline helps you identify main ideas, define subordinate ideas, focus your writing, avoid tangential excursions, and find omissions. In the outline, you can also designate headings and subheadings you will use in your paper see Sections 2. Outlines can take many forms, including the traditional format with Roman numeral headings or a concept map.

Taking the further step of reading Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish your paper aloud may reveal faults that you previously overlooked and may help strengthen the tone and style of your writing. You can also try reading the sections of your paper in reverse orderófrom the conclusion back to the introductionóto ensure that you have set up arguments appropriately.

Budget ample time when writing to allow yourself to take advantage of these strategies. Students are also encouraged to solicit feedback from their instructor and peers. They might hire a copyeditor to review and proofread their paper or visit a tutor at a university writing center.

A copyeditor or writing center tutor can assist with idiomatic language use, organization, and other areas. We highly recommend use of these services for authors who consistently face obstacles in getting their work published or students who would like to attain more success in the classroom.

Students should check the academic integrity policies of their institution to determine what kinds of assistance are acceptable. Writers should develop a revision plan. It is best to start with the big picture and work down to the details. Consider the following broad questions when reviewing your paper: Is the central point or thesis of your paper clear? Do the arguments follow logically from the thesis?

For students, does the draft meet the parameters of the assignment? If there is a rubric for the assignment, does the paper address each element of the rubric? For authors seeking publication, does the draft fit the journal style and formatting requirements see Sections At the detail level, check sentences for correct grammar and usage see Sections 4.

Also check for spelling and grammar errors using the automatic spell-check and grammar-check functions of your word-processing program. Although an electronic spell-check cannot take the place of careful proofreading because words spelled correctly may be used incorrectly , it will lessen the chances that typographical errors make their way into the published article or the submitted assignment.

Grammar-check functions are useful for identifying problematic sentence structure. Keep in mind, however, that grammar is complex and therefore grammar-checkers are not infallible. Although the Publication Manual addresses many aspects of grammar and usage, it focuses on the areas that are the most problematic for writers of scholarly work.

For grammatical questions not addressed in the Publication Manual, consult a trusted grammar reference. As an organization, APA is committed to both the advancement of science and the fair treatment of individuals and groups.

These principles require that authors and students who use APA Style avoid perpetuating demeaning attitudes in their writing. It is unacceptable to use constructions that might imply prejudicial beliefs or perpetuate biased assumptions against persons on the basis of age, disability, gender, participation in research, racial or ethnic identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, or some combination of these or other personal factors e. Instead, authors should use affirming and inclusive language.

Long-standing cultural practice can exert a powerful influence over even the most conscientious writer. Just as you have learned to check what you write for spelling, grammar, and wordiness, practice rereading your work for preconceptions about groups of people. Ask people from the groups about which you are writing to read and comment on your material or consult selfadvocacy groups to determine appropriate terminology.

If you work directly with participants, ask them what terms they use to describe themselves. Instagram and Telegram: PDFEnglish Some attempts to follow the guidelines in this chapter may result in wordiness or clumsy prose. Our policy towards the use of cookies All Clarivate Analytics websites use cookies to improve your online experience.

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