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Speech text. Becoming a Public Speaker 2 2. From A to Z: Overview of a Speech 8 3. Managing Speech Anxiety 14 4. Ethical Public Speaking 23 5. Analyzing the Audience 37 7. Selecting a Topic and Purpose 49 8. Developing Supporting Material 57 9. Locating Supporting Material 64 Doing Effective Internet Research 73 Organizing the Speech 93 Selecting an Organizational Pattern Developing the Introduction and Conclusion Choosing a Method of Delivery Controlling the Voice Types of Presentation Aids Designing Presentation Aids Informative Speaking Persuasive Speaking Typical Classroom Presentation Formats Science and Mathematics Courses Technical Courses Social Science Courses Arts and Humanities Courses Education Courses Nursing and Allied Health Courses Business Courses and Business Presentations Presenting in Teams Citation Guidelines B.

Question-and-Answer Sessions C. Preparing for Mediated Communication D. Question-and-Answer Sessions Credibility C. Feinberg Editorial Director: Denise B. Wydra Director of Development: Erica T. Appel Director of Marketing: Karen R. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or oth- erwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher.

Manufactured in the United States of America. Here, you will find the tools you need to prepare and deliver a wide range of speeches and presentations. In Parts 1 through 6 you will find chapters covering all the steps necessary to create a speech — from planning, research, and development to organization, practice, and delivery.

Chap- ters beginning in Part 7 contain guidelines for creating three of the most commonly assigned speeches in public speaking classes: informative, persuasive, and special occasion. For specific guidelines on speaking in other college classes, in small groups, and on the job, see Part 8. Browsing through the brief table of contents inside the front cover will usually guide you to the information you need.

If not, consult the more detailed table of contents included inside the back cover. For definitions of key terms highlighted in the book, see pages — For more on specific types of speeches, consult Chapters 23—25 on informative, persuasive, or special occasion speeches, or the appropriate chapter in Part 8.

Appendix A pp. Appendix D pp. Preface A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking, Third Edition, represents our belief in offering a truly effective speech resource that is comprehensive yet brief, affordable and student friendly, with solid scholarship and an emphasis on the rhetorical tradition. This guide is designed to be useful in the widest possible range of situations, from the traditional speech classroom and courses across the curriculum to applications on the job and in the community.

In developing A Pocket Guide, our goal has always been to meet the needs of speech instructors who find mainstream, full-size introductory speech texts either too overwhelming or too constraining for their classes. In addition, we hope to satisfy instructors in other disciplines who want an easy and affordable tool for teaching basic presentation skills that is also manageable enough to allow them to focus on their own course material.

Since the first edition published in , over , instructors and students across the academic spectrum — from courses in speech and the humanities to education, engineering, and business — have embraced the book, making it the most successful pocket-size speech text available.

We have used their generous feedback to create this third edition. Features A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking addresses all of the topics and skills typically covered in an introductory speech text.

New to This Edition Based on feedback from hundreds of instructors about the challenges of teaching public and presentational speaking, this revised third edition is designed to help students master basic skills and apply what they learn in class from the text to their own speeches.

To help students accu- rately and effectively use supporting material in their speeches, the third edition offers a full new chapter on orally citing sources Chapter 11 and expands coverage in appropriate sections throughout. New student speeches include an informative speech about a promising new cancer treatment and a persuasive speech on significant challenges facing emer- gency healthcare in the United States; the new profes- sional speech is a humorous and heartwarming wedding toast.

Here, students will find an abundance of free study tools to help them excel in class, including help with speech topics, tutorials for evaluating sources and avoiding pla- giarism, exercises for speaking in other college courses, and more. In addition, students can access VideoCentral described below. The most extensive video offering available for the public speaking course, VideoCentral provides brief speech clips and eighteen full student speeches that model key speech concepts.

Access to VideoCentral also connects students with additional pre- mium resources, including the Bedford Speech Outliner 2. Students can also purchase stand-alone access at bedfordstmartins. This CD-ROM offers seven full student speeches — informative, persua- sive, special occasion, and demonstration — with analy- sis and guidance for each speech, plus twenty professional speech clips. These video examples work not just as mod- els but as powerful teaching tools.

These brief yet comprehensive and affordable print booklets focus on a range of topics and are designed to supplement a main text in a public speak- ing course. These guides are available to be packaged with A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking for a very low price.

Keith and Christian O. Villagran, George Mason University. This comprehensive manual offers useful guidance for new and experienced instructors, and out- lines and activities for every chapter in the main text.

The manual is available for download from bedfordstmartins. For more on receiving copies of our professional and student speech collections, please visit bedfordstmartins.

To access CMS content, go to bfwpub. Moy who expertly guided us through every step of this revision. This pocket guide offers the tools you need to create and deliver effective speeches, from brief pre- sentations to fellow students, co-workers, or fellow citizens to major addresses. Here you will discover the basic building blocks of any good speech and acquire the skills to deliver presentations in a variety of specialized contexts—from the college psychology class to business and professional situations.

Gain a Vital Life Skill The ability to speak confidently and convincingly in public is a valuable asset to anyone who wants to take an active role in the world. Now, more than ever, public speaking has become both a vital life skill and a secret weapon in career develop- ment. In a recent survey of employers, for example, oral communication skills ranked first in such critical areas as teamwork, interpersonal competence, and analytical skills. Communication skills verbal and written 2.

Strong work ethic 3. Teamwork skills works well with others 4. Initiative 5. Interpersonal skills relates well to others Source: Job Outlook , a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, Learn Practical and Transferable Knowledge Perhaps more than any other course of study, public speak- ing offers extraordinarily useful practical knowledge and skills that lead to satisfying personal and professional devel- opment.

For example, public-speaking training sharpens your ability to reason and think critically. As you study pub- lic speaking, you will learn to construct claims and then present evidence and reasoning that logically support them. These skills are valuable in any course that includes an oral-presentation component, from engineering to art history, or in any course that requires writing, researching topics, analyzing audi- ences, supporting and proving claims, and selecting patterns for organizing ideas.

These skills will also serve you well throughout your career and beyond. In the marketplace of ideas, the person who communicates clearly is also the person who is seen as thinking clearly.

Oral and written communication are not only job-securing, but job-holding skills. Climate change, energy, social security, immigration reform—such large civic issues require our considered judg- ment and action. Today, only about 35 per- cent of people in the United States regularly vote. When citi- zens speak up in sufficient numbers, change occurs.

Leaving problems such as pollution and global warming to others, on the other hand, is an invitation to special interest groups who may or may not act with our best interests in mind. As you study public speaking, you will have the opportu- nity to research topics that are meaningful to you, consider alternate viewpoints, and if appropriate, choose a course of action.

In several respects, for example, planning and deliver- ing a speech resemble engaging in a particularly important conversation. When speaking with a friend, you automati- cally check to make certain you are understood and then adjust your meaning accordingly. You also tend to discuss issues that are appropriate to the circumstances. When a relative stranger is involved, however, you try to get to know his or her interests and attitudes before revealing any strong opinions.

These instinctive adjustments to your audience, topic, and occasion represent critical steps in creating a speech. Preparing a speech also has much in common with writ- ing. Both depend on having a focused sense of who the audi- ence is. The principles of organizing a speech parallel those of organizing an essay, including offering a compelling introduction, a clear thesis statement, support- ing ideas, and a thoughtful conclusion.

Speakers also routinely repeat key words and phrases to emphasize ideas and help listeners follow along; even the briefest speeches make frequent use of repetition. Spoken language is often more interactive and inclusive of the audience than written language. The personal pro- nouns we, I, and you occur more frequently in spoken than in written text. Audience members want to know what the speaker thinks and feels and that he or she recognizes them and relates the message to them.

Yet, because public speaking usually occurs in more formal settings than everyday conver- sation, listeners generally expect a more formal style of com- munication from the speaker. When you give a speech, listeners expect you to speak in a clear, recognizable, and organized fashion.

Become an Inclusive Speaker Every audience member wants to feel that the speaker has his or her particular needs and interests at heart, and to feel rec- ognized and included in the message. To create this sense of inclusion, a public speaker must be able to address diverse audiences with sensitivity. No matter how passionately they believe in an issue, our most admired public speakers strive to respect differing viewpoints. Striving for inclusion and adopting an audience-centered perspective throughout will bring you closer to the goal of every public speaker—establishing a genuine connection with the audience.

Public Speaking as a Form of Communication Public speaking is one of four categories of human commu- nication: dyadic, small group, mass, and public speaking. Dyadic communication happens between two people, as in a conversation.

Small group communication involves a small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another. Mass communication occurs between a speaker and a large audience of unknown people who usually are not present with the speaker, or who are part of such an immense crowd that there can be little or no interaction between speaker and listener.

In public speaking, a speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech. Public speaking always includes a speaker who has a reason for speaking, an audi- ence that gives the speaker its attention, and a message that is meant to accomplish a specific purpose.

Shared Elements in All Communication Events In any communication event, including public speaking, several elements are present. These include the source, the receiver, the message, the channel, and shared meaning see Figure 1.

Creating, organizing, and producing the message is called encoding — the process of converting thoughts into words. The process of interpreting the message is called decoding. Audience members decode the meaning of the message selectively, based on their own experiences and atti- tudes. The message is the content of the communication process: thoughts and ideas put into meaningful expressions, expressed verbally and nonverbally.

The medium through which the speaker sends a message is the channel. If a speaker is delivering a message in front of a live audience, the channel is the air through which sound waves travel. Other channels include the telephone, televi- sion, computers, and written correspondence. Noise is any interference with the message. Noise can disrupt the com- munication process through physical sounds such as cell phones ringing and people talking, through psychological distractions such as heated emotions, or through environ- mental interference such as a frigid room or the presence of unexpected people.

Shared meaning is the mutual understanding of a mes- sage between speaker and audience. As the message develops, a higher degree of shared meaning is possible. Two other factors are critical to consider when preparing and delivering a speech—context and goals.

Context includes anything that influences the speaker, the audience, the occa- sion—and thus, ultimately, the speech. In classroom speeches, the context would include among other things recent events on campus or in the outside world, the physical setting, the order and timing of speeches, and the cultural orientations of audience members. Successful communication can never be divorced from the concerns and expectations of others.

Part of the context of any speech is the situation that cre- ated the need for it in the first place. All speeches are deliv- ered in response to a specific rhetorical situation, or a circumstance calling for a public response.

A clearly defined speech purpose or goal is a final prerequi- site for an effective speech. What is it that you want the audi- ence to learn or do or believe as a result of your speech? Establishing a speech purpose early in the speechmaking process will help you proceed through speech preparation and delivery with a clear focus in mind.

The Classical Roots of Public Speaking Originally the practice of giving speeches was known as rhet- oric also called oratory. Rhetoric flourished in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth century B.

Meeting in a public square called the agora, the Athenians routinely spoke with great proficiency on the issues of public policy, and to this day their belief that citizen- ship demands active participation in public affairs endures.

From the beginning, public speakers, notably Aristotle — B. Inven- tion refers to adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case. Arrangement is organizing the speech in ways best suited to the topic and audience.

Style is the way the speaker uses language to express the speech ideas. Memory and delivery are the methods of rehearsing and pre- senting the speech so that you achieve the most effective blend of content, voice, and nonverbal behavior. Often identified by terms other than the original, these canons nonetheless continue to be taught in current books on public speaking, including this pocket guide. Today, the term public forum denotes a variety of venues for the discussion of issues of public interest, including traditional physical spaces such as town halls as well as virtual forums streamed to listeners online.

Participation in forums offers an excellent opportunity to pose questions and deliver brief comments, thereby providing exposure to an audience and building confidence. To find a forum in your area, check with your school or local town government, or check online at sites such as the National Issues Forum www. From A to Z: 2 Overview of a Speech Novice speakers in any circumstances, whether at school, at work, or in the community, will benefit from preparing and delivering a first short speech.

Subsequent chapters expand on these steps. Select a Topic The first step in creating a speech involves finding something to speak about. Unless the topic is assigned, let your interests — your passions — be your guide. What deeply engages you? What are your areas of expertise? Your hobbies? Be aware, however, that even though personal interest is important, your topic must be of interest to the audience.

Selecting an appropriate topic requires knowledge of who is in the audi- ence and what their interests are. Analyze the Audience Audiences have personalities, interests, and opinions all their own, and these factors will determine how receptive an audi- ence will be toward a given topic. Audience analysis is a systematic process of getting to know your listeners. It involves studying the audience through tech- niques such as interviews and questionnaires see Chapter 6.

Determine the Speech Purpose Decide what you wish to convey about your topic and why. For any given topic, you should direct your speech toward one of three general speech purposes—to inform, to persuade, or to mark a special occasion.

An informative speech provides an audience with new information, new insights, or new ways of thinking about a topic. Sample topics might include trends in video gaming or advances in electric cars. A persuasive speech intends to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, or acts of others. For example, a speaker might attempt to convince listeners that state universities should not charge tuition or argue that the child foster-care system is in disarray.

A special occasion speech also called ceremonial speech marks a special event, such as a wedding, funeral, com- mencement, or banquet. This type of speech can be either informative or persuasive and is often a mix of both. How- ever, depending on the occasion, its underlying purpose is to entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire, or set a social agenda. Wherever you are in the planning stage, always refer to the thesis statement to make sure that you are on track to illustrate or prove the central idea of your speech.

Develop the Main Points Organize your speech around two or three main points. These points are your primary pieces of knowledge in an informative speech or your key arguments in a persuasive speech. If you create a clear thesis statement for your speech the main points will be easily identifiable, if not explicit: THESIS: Rather than censorship, concerns about the potential for clogging its computer system drove the U.

The military based their selection of sites to block on highest-volume use. Most deployed forces can still access the blocked sites using commercial Internet cafes and providers. They include the entire world of information available to you—from personal expe- riences to every conceivable kind of print and electronic source. A speech is only as good as its supporting materials, which provide evidence for your assertions and lend credi- bility to your message see Chapters 9— Separate the Speech into Its Major Parts Every speech has three major parts: introduction, body, and conclusion.

Develop each part separately, then bring them together using transition statements see Chapter The introduction serves to introduce the topic and the speaker and to alert the audience to your specific speech pur- pose.

The conclusion restates the speech purpose and reiterates how the main points confirm it see Chapter Outlines are based on the principle of coordination and subordination—the logical place- ment of ideas relative to their importance to one another. Coordinate points are of equal importance and are indicated by their parallel alignment. Subordinate points are given less weight than the main points they support and are placed to the right of the points they support.

For a full discussion of outlining, see Chapters 12 and Main Point 1 II. Main Point 1 A. First level of subordination 1. Second level of subordination 2.

Second level of subordination a. Third level of subordination b. Third level of subordination As your speeches become more involved, you will need to select an appropriate organizational pattern see Chapter You will also need to familiarize yourself with developing both working and speaking outlines see Chapter Consider Presentation Aids Presentation aids that summarize and highlight information, such as charts and graphs, often can help the audience retain ideas and understand difficult concepts.

They also can pro- vide dramatic emphasis that listeners will find memorable see Chapter Practice Delivering the Speech The success of any speech depends on how well prepared and practiced you are. So practice your speech—often. It has been suggested that a good speech is practiced at least six times. Aim to speak neither too fast nor too slowly. Audiences want to feel that you care about what you are saying, so avoid a deadpan, or blank, expression.

Doing so will make audience members feel that you recognize and respect them. According to one study, at least 75 percent of students in public-speaking courses approach the course with anxiety.

Channeled prop- erly, nervousness may actually boost performance. The difference between seasoned public speakers and the rest of us is that the seasoned speakers know how to make their nervousness work for rather than against them. I focus on the information. I try not to think about being graded. I also practice my speech a ton to really make sure I do not speak too quickly. I time myself so that I can develop an average time. This makes me more confident [in dealing] with time requirements.

And, because I know that I am well prepared, I really try to just relax. Lack of Positive Experience If you have had no exposure to public speaking or have had unpleasant experiences, anxiety about what to expect is only natural. Some people react by deciding to avoid making speeches altogether. Although they avoid the anxiety of speechmaking, they also lose out on the considerable rewards it brings.

Feeling Different Novice speakers often feel alone—as if they were the only person ever to experience the dread of public speaking. The prospect of getting up in front of an audience makes them extra-sensitive to their personal idiosyncrasies, such as hav- ing a less-than-perfect haircut or an accent. Novice speakers may think that no one could possibly be interested in any- thing they have to say. As inexperienced speakers, we become anxious because we assume that being different somehow means being infe- rior.

Actually, everyone is different from everyone else in many ways. And, just as true, nearly everyone experiences nervousness about giving a speech. Our tendency in these situations is to think we must be doing something wrong; we wonder what it is and whether the entire audience has noticed it.

Depending on when it strikes, the consequences of public-speaking anxiety can include every- thing from procrastination to poor speech performance. But by pinpointing the onset of speech anxiety, you can address it promptly with specific anxiety-reducing techniques see strategies to boost confidence on pp.

Pre-preparation Anxiety Some people feel anxious the minute they know they will be giving a speech. Pre-preparation anxiety at this early stage can have several negative consequences, from reluctance to begin planning for the speech to becoming so preoccupied with anxiety that they miss vital information necessary to fulfill the speech assignment.

If this form of anxiety affects you, use the stress-reducing techniques described in this chapter early on in the process. At that point, they might feel overwhelmed at the amount of time and planning required. They might hit a roadblock that puts them behind schedule, or be unable to locate support for a critical point. These kinds of preparation pressures produce a cycle of stress, procrastination, and outright avoidance. All con- tribute to preparation anxiety.

If you find yourself feeling anxious during this stage, defuse the anxiety by taking short, relaxing breaks. Pre-performance Anxiety Some people experience anxiety when they rehearse their speech. At this point, the reality of the situation sets in: Soon they will face an audience of people who will be watching and listening only to them. Knowing that time is short, they begin to get nervous. If this pre-performance anxiety is strong enough and is interpreted negatively, they might even decide to stop rehearsing.

I spent a few hours trying to strengthen it and make it more interest- ing, then I rehearsed again. The second time around felt much better, and the speech went well. As might be expected, audiences we perceive as hostile or negative usually cause us to feel more anxious than those we sense are positive or neutral. Use Proven Strategies to Boost Your Confidence A number of proven strategies exist to help you rein in your fears about public speaking, from meditation and visualiza- tion to other forms of relaxation techniques.

The first step in taming speech anxiety is to have a clear and thorough plan for each presentation. Preparation should begin as soon as possible after a speech is assigned. Once you have prepared the speech, be sure to rehearse it several times. Preparing your speech in advance will lessen your nervousness considerably.

To ensure a positive result, prepare the speech well in advance and rehearse it several times. Modify Thoughts and Attitudes Negative thoughts about speechmaking increase speech anx- iety. Remind yourself of all the reasons that public speaking is helpful personally, socially, and professionally. Think posi- tively about public speaking, and remind yourself that it is an opportunity toward, not a threat to, personal growth. The way I keep them from taking over is to not let my mind become negative.

Doing so might help you feel more relaxed about the process, and with each successive speech experience, your attitude toward public speaking will grow more positive.

Visualize Success Visualization is a highly effective way to reduce nervousness. This exercise requires you to close your eyes and visualize a series of positive feelings and reactions that will occur on the day of the speech. Close your eyes and allow your body to get comfortable in the chair in which you are sitting. Take a deep, comfortable breath and hold it. Now take another deep breath and make certain that you are breathing from the diaphragm. Now one more deep breath.

Now begin to visualize the beginning of a day in which you are going to give an informative speech. You are putting on just the right clothes for the task at hand that day. Dressing well makes you look and feel good about yourself, so you have on just what you want to wear, which clearly expresses your sense of inner well-being.

You feel thoroughly prepared for the target issue you will be presenting today. Now you see yourself standing or sitting in the room where you will present your speech, talking very comfortably and confidently with others in the room. The people to whom you will be presenting your speech appear to be quite friendly and are very cordial in their greetings and conversa- tions prior to the presentation. You feel absolutely sure of your material and of your ability to present the information in a forceful, convincing, positive manner.

Now you see yourself approaching the area from which you will present. You are feeling very good about this presen- tation and see yourself move eagerly forward. All of your audiovisual materials are well organized, well planned, and clearly aid your presentation.

Research shows that you can counteract these sensations by activating the relaxation res- ponse10 using techniques such as meditation and controlled breathing. Briefly Meditate You can calm yourself considerably with this brief medita- tion exercise: 1. Sit comfortably in a quiet space. Relax your muscles, moving from neck to shoulders to arms to back to legs. Choose a word, phrase, or prayer that is connected to your belief system e.

Breathe slowly and say it until you become calm about ten to twenty minutes. Use Stress-Control Breathing When you feel stressed, the center of your breathing tends to move from the abdomen to the upper chest, leaving you with a reduced supply of air.

With stress-control breathing,11 you will feel more movement in the stomach than in the chest. Try stress- control breathing in two stages. Exhale air and let your abdomen go in.

Do this for a while until you get into the rhythm of it. Each inhalation and exhalation of stress- control breathing takes about three to five seconds. Then, once the speaking event arrives, use it while you wait your turn and just before you start your speech.

I draw a couple of deep breaths from my stomach; I breathe in through my nose and out through my mouth. This allows more oxygen to the brain so you can think clearly. A half-hour to one-hour session of whole body stretches and Yoga poses, combined with deep breathing, will help discharge nervous energy. Use Movement to Minimize Anxiety During delivery, you can use controlled movements with your hands and body to release nervousness. Practice Natural Gestures Practice some controlled, natural gestures that might be useful in enhancing your speech, such as holding up your index finger when stating your first main point.

Think about what you want to say as you do this, instead of thinking about how you look or feel. See Chapter 19 for tips on practicing natural gestures. Walk around as you make some of your points. Think of giving a speech in this way, and chances are you will find pleasure in it. Although you can learn a great deal from your own evaluation, research sug- gests you can learn even more from the objective evaluations of others. Speakers in Ancient Greece were regarded posi- tively if they were well prepared, honest, and respectful toward their audience.

Today, surprisingly little has changed. Like the individuals who hold them, values can conflict and clash. The more diverse the society, the greater these conflicts tend to be. Conflicting values make it difficult to speak about certain topics without challenging cherished beliefs. The United States is a country of immigrants, for example, but half of the population with only a high school education believe that immigrants threaten traditional U. Thus the First Amendment, which guarantees freedom of speech, assures protection both to speakers who treat the truth with respect and to those whose words are inflammatory and offensive.

Though often legally protected, racist, sexist, homopho- bic, pornographic, and other forms of negative speech clearly are unethical and should be avoided at all cost. How can you tell if your speech contains defamatory lan- guage? If you are talking about public figures or matters of public concern, you will not be legally liable unless it can be shown that you spoke with a reckless disregard for the truth—that is, if you knew that what you were saying was false but said it anyway.

If your comments refer to private persons, it will be easier for them to assert a claim for defamation. You will have the burden of proving that what you said was true. Perhaps the most important contribution you can make to public debates of this nature is the advancement of con- structive goals. An ethical speech appeals to the greater good rather than narrow self-interest. It steers clear of invective, or verbal attacks designed to unfairly discredit, demean, and belittle those with whom you disagree.

Originally used as a military term to describe how soldiers may use their weapons, the concept can also be applied to the ways we relate to one another in the public arena. The qualities of dignity and integrity should infuse every aspect of a speech. Dignity refers to ensuring that listeners feel worthy, honored, or respected as individuals.

Trustworthiness is a combination of honesty and dependability. It includes revealing your true purpose to your audience—and not sacrificing the truth to it. Respect is demonstrated by addressing audience mem- bers as unique human beings and refraining from any form of personal attack. The respectful speaker focuses on issues rather than on personalities and allows the audience the power of rational choice.

Responsibility means being accountable for what you say. For example, will learning about your topic in some way benefit listeners? Do you use sound evidence and reasoning? Do you offer emotional appeals because they are appropriate rather than to shore up otherwise weak arguments? Avoid Offensive Speech To be an ethical speaker, you must scrupulously avoid expressions of ethnocentrism, stereotypes, or outright preju- dice.

This kind of speech is never acceptable. Avoid Plagiarism Crediting sources is a crucial aspect of any speech. But it is also plagia- rism to copy material into your speech draft from a source and then change and rearrange words and sentence structure here and there to make it appear as if it were your own.

These sources include direct quotations, as well as paraphrased and summarized information—any facts and statistics, ideas, opinions, theo- ries, gathered and reported by others. The source of any infor- mation that was not gathered by you should always be cited in your speech. For each source that requires citation, you need to include the type of source magazine, book, personal inter- view, Web site, etc. Oral presentations need not include the full bibliographic reference including full names, dates, titles, volume, and page numbers.

However, you should include a complete reference in a bibliography page or at the end of the speech outline. For more on creating a written bibliography for your speeches, see Appendix A.

One exception to sources needing citation is the use of common knowledge—information that is likely to be known by many people though such information must truly be widely disseminated. For example, it is common knowl- edge that terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Center towers on September 11, It is not common knowledge that the towers were 1, and 1, feet high. Direct quotes should always be acknowledged in a speech.

After all, they are not your ideas. More important than mere foods, the presence or absence of these invisible substances was now generally believed to confer health benefits on their eaters.

Compare the original version of the excerpt to how it could be properly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in a speech. Oral citation language is bolded for easy identification.

Rosen claims that rather than the actual food we eat—things like eggs or apples, breakfast cereal or chicken breasts—we now believe it is the unseen substances within those foods such as cholesterol, saturated fat, and fiber, that make us healthy or sick. We decide whether a food is healthy or not solely on the basis of how much or how little of these substances a food contains. Fair Use, Copyright, and Ethical Speaking Copyright is a legal protection afforded the original creators of literary and artistic works.

After that, unless extended, the work falls into the public domain, which means anyone may reproduce it. Not subject to copyright are federal but not state or local government publications, common knowledge, and select other categories. An exception to the prohibitions of copyright is the doc- trine of fair use, which permits the limited use of copy- righted works without permission for the purposes of scholarship, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, or research.

It offers creators six types of licenses, three of which are perhaps most relevant to students in the classroom: attribution lets you use the work if you give credit the way the author requests ; noncommercial lets you use the work for noncommercial purposes only ; and no derivative works lets you use only verbatim—exact— versions of the work.

The rules of fair use apply equally to works licensed under Creative Commons and the laws of copyright. Stu- dent speakers may search the Creative Commons Web site for suitable materials for their speech at creativecommons. Avoiding Internet Plagiarism The rules for copyright, Creative Commons, and fair use apply equally to print and online sources. As with print sources, you must accurately credit direct quotations, para- phrased information, facts, statistics, or other information posted online that was gathered and reported by someone other than yourself.

Executives dedicate even more time to this highly valued skill, upwards of 50 percent. One day later, the figure drops to about 35 percent. Listen Responsibly As a speaker, you have the power of the podium; but as a lis- tener, you also have considerable power that you can wield constructively or destructively. As listeners, we are ethically bound to refrain from disruptive and intimidating tactics— such as heckling, name-calling, or interrupting—that are meant to silence those with whom we disagree.

If we find the arguments of others morally offensive, we are equally bound to speak up appropriately in refutation. For listeners, it means maintaining an open mind and listening with empathy. Minimize External and Internal Distractions A listening distraction is anything that competes for the attention we are trying to give to something else. Distractions can originate outside of us, in the environment external distractions , or within us, in our thoughts and feelings internal distractions.

If you struggle to see or hear at a distance, arrive early and sit in the front. To reduce internal listening distractions, avoid daydreaming, be well rested, monitor yourself for lapses in attention, and consciously focus on listening.

Guard against Scriptwriting and Defensive Listening When we engage in scriptwriting, we focus on what we, rather than the speaker, will say next. When you find yourself scriptwriting or listening with a defensive posture, remind yourself that effective listening precedes effective rebuttal. Beware of Laziness and Overconfidence Laziness and overconfidence can manifest themselves in sev- eral ways: We may expect too little from speakers, ignore important information, or display an arrogant attitude.

Later, we discover we missed important information. Work to Overcome Cultural Barriers Differences in dialects or accents, nonverbal cues, word choice, and even physical appearance can serve as barriers to listening, but they need not if you keep your focus on the message rather than the messenger. Consciously refrain from judging a speaker on the basis of his or her accent, appearance, or demeanor; focus instead on what is actually being said. Whenever possible, reveal your needs to him or her by asking questions.

Either eliminate or define them. Pay particular attention to pronunciation and articulation. I will take careful notes during her speech and ask questions about anything I do not understand. Is it accurate?

Are the sources credible? Does the evidence sup- port or contradict these assertions? Does it betray faulty logic? Does it rely on fallacies in reasoning? See Chapter Is there another way to view the argument?

We listen at 90— words per minute, but think at — words per minute. But you can also use the differential to your advantage. Why is he or she presenting this material? Is the speaker leaving anything out? How can I use what the speaker is telling me? Always start by saying something positive, and focus on the speech, not the speaker. Make specific rather than global statements.

To engage your listeners and bring them to your point of view, you too must investigate your audience. This is the single most critical aspect of preparing for any speech. Maintaining an audience-centered approach to all phases of the speech preparation process—from treatment of the speech topic to making decisions about how you will organ- ize, word, and deliver it—will help you prepare a presenta- tion that your audience will want to hear.

Attitudes, beliefs, and values, while intertwined, reflect distinct mental states that reveal a great deal about us. Atti- tudes are our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events.

People generally act in accordance with their attitudes although the degree to which they do so depends on many factors. The less faith listeners have in the existence of something— UFOs, for instance—the less open they are to hearing about it. Values are more long-lasting than attitudes or beliefs and are more resistant to change. Values usually align with atti- tudes and beliefs.

As a rule, people are more interested in and pay greater attention to topics toward which they have positive attitudes and that are in keeping with their values and beliefs. The less we know about something, the more indifferent we tend to be. It is easier though not simple to spark interest in an indifferent audience than it is to turn negative attitudes around. The local wetland provides a sanctuary to many plants and animals. It helps clean our air and water and provides a space of beauty and serenity.

All of this is about to be destroyed by irrespon- sible development. What is their level of interest? Do they hold positive, negative, or neutral attitudes toward it? You can do this by making positive references to the place where you are speaking and the group to whom you are addressing your comments. Personalize the speech by applying relevant facts and statistics in your speech directly to the audience. A speaker who is well liked can gain an initial hearing even when listeners are unsure what to expect from the message itself.

Listeners have a natural desire to identify with the speaker and to feel that he or she shares their perceptions,7 so establish a feeling of commonality, or identi- fication, with them. Use eye contact and body movements to include the audience in your message. Relate a relevant per- sonal story, emphasize a shared role, focus on areas of agree- ment, or otherwise stress mutual bonds. Even your physical presentation can foster a common bond. Audiences are more apt to identify with speakers who dress in ways they find appropriate.

Members of a captive audience, who are required to hear the speaker, may be less positively disposed to the occasion than members of a voluntary audience who attend of their own free will. This practice, called pandering, will only undermine your credibility in the eyes of the audience. Just as you might do with a new acquaintance, use audience analysis as an opportunity to get to know and establish common ground with your listeners. The more you find out about someone, the more you can discover what you share in common and how you differ.

Adapt Your Message to Audience Demographics Demographics are the statistical characteristics of a given population. At least six such characteristics are typically considered in the analysis of speech audiences: age, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status including income, occupation, and education , religion, political affiliation, and gender.

Any number of other traits—for example, group membership, physical disability, sexual orientation, or place of residence — may be important to investigate as well. Knowing where audience members fall in relation to audience demographics will help you identify your target audience — those individuals within the broader audience whom you are most likely to influence in the direction you seek.

You may not be able to please everyone, but you should be able to establish a connection with your target audience. Age Each age group has its own concerns and, broadly speaking, psychological drives and motivations.

In addition to sharing the concerns associated with a given life stage, people of the same generation often share a familiarity with significant individuals, local and world events, noteworthy popular cul- ture, and so forth. Some audience members may have a great deal in common with you. Others may be fluent in a language other than yours and must struggle to under- stand you. Some members of the audience may belong to a distinct co-culture, or social community whose perspectives and style of communicating differ significantly from yours.

See p. Knowing roughly where an audience falls in terms of these key variables can be critical in effectively tar- geting your message. It directly affects how they are housed, clothed, and fed, and determines what they can afford.

Beyond this, income has a ripple effect, influencing many other aspects of life. For example, depending on income, health insurance is either a taken-for-granted budget item or an out-of- reach dream. The same is true for travel and leisure activities. Occupational interests are tied to several other areas of social concern, such as politics, the economy, education, and social reform.

Personal attitudes, beliefs, and goals are also closely tied to occupational standing. If the audience is generally better educated than you are, your speech may need to be quite sophisticated. When speaking to a less- educated audience, you may choose to clarify your points with more examples and illustrations. For example, Catholics disagree on birth control and divorce, Jews disagree on whether to recognize same-sex unions, and so forth. Some people like nothing better than a lively debate about public-policy issues.

Others avoid anything that smacks of politics. Many people are very serious, and others are very touchy, about their views on political issues.

Gender Gender is another important factor in audience analysis, if only as a reminder to avoid the minefield of gender stereo- typing. Distinct from the fixed physical characteristics of bio- logical sex, gender is our social and psychological sense of ourselves as males or females.

Problems range from sight and hearing impairments to constraints on physical mobility and employment. Worldwide, there are more than two hundred recognized countries, and many more distinct cultures within these countries. How might you prepare to speak in front of an ethni- cally and culturally diverse audience, including that of your classroom? In any speaking situation, your foremost con- cern should be to treat your listeners with dignity and to act with integrity.

Consider Cross-Cultural Values In the United States, researchers have identified a set of core values, including achievement and success, equal opportunity, material comfort, hard work, practicality and efficiency, change and progress, science, democracy, and freedom. Table 6. Focus on Universal Values As much as possible, it is important to try to determine the attitudes, beliefs, and values of audience members. At the same time, you can focus on certain values that, if not universally shared, are probably universally aspired to in the human heart.

These include love, truthfulness, fair- ness, freedom, unity, tolerance, responsibility, and respect for life. Do you use examples they will recognize and find relevant? Unlike a professional pollster, you cannot survey thou- sands of people and apply sophisticated statistical techniques to analyze your results.

On a smaller scale, however, you can use the same techniques. These include surveys, interviews, and published sources.

Often, it takes just a few questions to get some idea of where audience members stand on each of the demographic factors. Survey Audience Members Surveys can be as informal as a poll of several audience members or as formal as the pre-speech distribution of a written survey, or questionnaire—a series of open- and closed-ended questions. Open-ended questions are particularly useful for probing beliefs and opinions. You can conduct interviews one-on-one or in a group, in person or by telephone or e-mail.

Consider inter- viewing a sampling of the audience, or even just one knowl- edgeable representative of the group that you will address. Plan the questions you will ask well in advance of the actual interview date. The wording of a question is almost as critical as the information it seeks to uncover. He or she must either guess at what you mean or spend time interviewing you for clarification. Usually this will consist of a mix of open, closed, primary, and secondary questions.

Begin by establishing a spirit of collaboration. Pose substantive questions. Listen to what the subject is say- ing, not just to what you want to hear. Investigate Published Sources Yet another way to learn about audience members is through published sources. Organizations of all kinds publish informa- tion describing their missions, operations, and achievements.

Sources include Web sites and online articles, brochures, news- paper and magazine articles, and annual reports. You might also consider consulting published opinion polls that report on trends in attitudes. See, for example, the Pew Research Center Web site at people-press. To hone in on how audience members from other cultures might view spe- cific issues, consider consulting cross-cultural polls such as the World Values Survey www.

Assess the Speech Setting and Context As important as analyzing the audience is assessing and then preparing for the setting in which you will give your speech— size of audience, location, time, seating arrangement, and rhetorical situation: 1. Where will the speech take place? How long am I expected to speak? How many people will attend? Will I need a microphone? How will any equipment I plan to use in my speech, such as an LCD projector, function in the space?

Where will I stand or sit in relation to the audience? Will I be able to interact with the listeners? Who else will be speaking?

Are there special events or circumstances of concern to my audience that I should acknowledge the rhetorical situation? Even if the topic is assigned, as often happens in the classroom and workplace, you must still adapt it to suit the unique audience and speech situation.

Decide Where to Begin Selecting a topic, whether for a classroom speech or another venue, can be approached from a variety of angles. You can start even closer to the ground by making an inventory of your own interests and life experiences, from favorite activities and hobbies to deeply held goals and values.

Wherever you choose to begin, pick a topic you are drawn to and want to know more about. As one source of ideas, consider searching your favorite print or online publi- cations.

Beware, however, of choosing highly charged topics for which people have deeply held beliefs, such as abortion or prayer in the school. When it comes to core values, people rarely respond to persuasion see Chapter 24 , so speeches on such topics are likely to accomplish little beyond raising tension in the classroom.

Try Brainstorming to Generate Ideas To generate ideas for topics, try brainstorming by word association, topic mapping, or category. To brainstorm by word association, write down a single topic that might interest you and your listeners. Next, write down the first thing that comes to mind. Continue this process until you have a list of fifteen to twenty items. Directory dir. As related ideas come to you, write them down, as shown in Figure 7. To narrow your topic, try brainstorming by category.

Say your general topic is video games. Categories could include platform handheld, arcade , type racing, roleplaying , or operating system Linux, Macintosh, Windows. As you brain- storm by category, ask yourself: What questions do I have about the topic? What does my audience know about video games and what aspects are they most likely to want to hear about?

In others, the choice will be left to you. Even when the topic is specified, you must still refine and adapt the topic to fit the general speech purpose. The general purpose of the persuasive speech is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors of audience members.

The general pur- pose of the special occasion speech will be variously to enter- tain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire, or set a social agenda. When you narrow a topic, you focus on specific aspects of it to the exclusion of others.

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Public Speaking For Beginners

WebLanguage. English. x, p.: 22 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. Getting started -- Development -- Organization -- Starting, finishing, and styling -- . WebOct 3,  · [PDF DOWNLOAD] A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking Author: Dan O Hair Pages: pages Publisher: Bedford Books Language: English ISBN . WebDownload Download A Pocket Guide To Public Speaking (5th Edition) [PDF] Type: PDF Size: MB Download as PDF Download as DOCX Download as PPTX Download .